Formula and also structure: The chemical formula the calcium chloride is CaCl2, and its molar massive is 110.983 g/mol. The is an ionic compound consisting the the calcium cation (Ca2+) and also two chlorine anions (Cl-). The bivalent calcium metal forms an ionic bond with two chlorine atoms, as displayed below.
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Occurrence: Calcium chloride occurs in nature in that hydrated creates as the rarely minerals sinjarite (dihydrate) and also antarcticite (hexahydrate). The is likewise found in big amounts in herbal brine indigenous salt lakes and salt deposits.
Preparation: Calcium chloride is mainly created by reaction limestone (CaCO3) v hydrochloric acid (HCl).
CaCO3 + 2 HCl → CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O
It is additionally produced together a major by-product throughout manufacture that soda ash (Na2CO3) by the Solvay process, in i beg your pardon limestone is reacted with NaCl solution.
Physical properties: Calcium chloride is discovered as an odorless white powder, granules or flakes. It has actually a thickness of 2.15 g/mL, melting allude of 782 °C and also a high boiling point over 1600 °C.
Chemical properties: CaCl2 is extremely water soluble, hygroscopic (absorbs moisture from air) and also deliquescent (absorbs enough water come turn right into liquid). Calcium chloride dissolves in water in a really exothermic manner (releasing a huge amount of heat). Calcium chloride totally dissociates in water to offer calcium cations and also chloride anions. In aqueous solutions, the calcium ions have the right to displace various other ions in exchange reactions, such together the conversion of potassium phosphate right into calcium phosphate:
3 CaCl2 + 2 K3PO4 → Ca3(PO4)2 + 6 KCl
Uses: Calcium chloride has actually several comparable uses as salt chloride, and it is supplied as a food additive, food preservative, because that de-icing roads in winter, and as brine in refrigeration plants. It is also used as a swimming swimming pool chemical, in water therapy plants, and also for desiccating purposes. It also has applications in metallurgy, oil-well drilling, and also rubber, paper, dye and paint industries.
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Health effects/safety hazards: Calcium chloride is no toxic in normal quantities and is used in foods. However, its key hazard is due to its desiccating (drying) property and exothermic reaction once it dissolves in water. Thus, as soon as the solid comes into contact with wet skin or eyes, the can reason severe irritation and mild burns. Swallowing huge amounts can result in nausea, vomiting and ab pain.