Key PointsIonic compounds are created from strong electrostatic interactions between ions, which an outcome in higher melting points and electrical conductivity contrasted to covalent compounds.Covalent compounds have bonds whereby electrons space shared in between atoms. Because of the sharing of electrons, they exhibit characteristic physical properties that incorporate lower melt points and electrical conductivity contrasted to ionic compounds.

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Termselectronegativity: The propensity of an atom or molecule to tempt electrons and kind bonds.octet rule: atoms lose, gain, or share electrons in bespeak to have a full valence level that eight electrons. Hydrogen and helium space exceptions because they have the right to hold a maximum of 2 valence electrons.valence electrons: electron in the outermost principal power (valence) level of an atom that have the right to participate in the development of chemical bonds with various other atoms.

Two classes of Compounds

Compounds are characterized as building material containing two or much more different chemical elements. Castle have distinctive chemical structures identified by a fixed ratio of atoms held together by chemical bonds. Here, we comment on two classes of compounds based upon the bond form that hold the atoms together: ionic and covalent.

Covalent Compounds

Covalent bond are defined by the share of electrons between two or an ext atoms. These bonds mostly occur in between nonmetals or in between two of the same (or similar) elements.Two atoms with similar electronegativity will certainly not exchange an electron from their outermost shell; the atoms instead share electrons so the their valence electron covering is filled.

Examples the compounds the contain only covalent bonds room methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and iodine monobromide (IBr).

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Covalent bonding between hydrogen atomsSince every hydrogen atom has one electron, they are able to fill their outermost shells by sharing a pair of electrons with a covalent bond.

Ionic Compounds

Ionic bonding occurs when there is a huge difference in electronegativity between two atoms. This large difference leads to the ns of an electron native the less electronegative atom and the obtain of that electron by the much more electronegative atom, causing two ions. This oppositely charged ions feel one attraction to each other, and this electrostatic attraction constitutes one ionic bond.

Ionic bonding occurs in between a nonmetal, i beg your pardon acts together an electron acceptor, and also a metal, i beg your pardon acts together an electron donor. Metals have few valence electrons, whereas nonmetals have actually closer come eight valence electrons; to conveniently satisfy the octet rule, the nonmetal will certainly accept an electron donated through the metal. More than one electron deserve to be donated and also received in one ionic bond.

Some instances of compounds with ionic bonding encompass NaCl, KI, MgCl2.

Formation of sodium fluoride (NaF)The transfer of one electron from a neutral salt atom come a neutral fluorine atom creates two oppositely fee ions: Na+ and F–. Attraction that the oppositely charged ions is the ionic bond between Na and F.

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Effect on physical Properties

Covalent and ionic compounds deserve to be differentiated easily since of their various physical properties based on the nature of your bonding. Right here are part differences:

At room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure, covalent compounds may exist as a solid, a liquid, or a gas, whereas ionic compounds exist just as solids.Although heavy ionic compounds execute not command electricity since there space no totally free mobile ion or electrons, ionic compounds liquified in water do an electrically conductive solution. In contrast, covalent compounds execute not exhibit any kind of electrical conductivity, one of two people in pure type or when liquified in water.Ionic compounds exist in stable crystalline structures. Therefore, castle have higher melting and also boiling points compared to covalent compounds.

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