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sake, also spelled saké, Japanese alcoholic beverage made from fermented rice. Sake is light in colour, is noncarbonated, has actually a sweet flavour, and also contains around 14 to 16 percent alcohol.

Sake is frequently mistakenly referred to as a wine because of that appearance and also alcoholic content; however, that is make in a procedure known as multiple parallel fermentation, in which a serial (rice) is convert from starch to sugar followed by conversion come alcohol. Special strains the rice are precisely milled to remove the external layers, a procedure that reduce the grain to 50 to 70 percent the its initial size.

Production starts with kome-koji, a ready of steam rice and also koji (Aspergillus oryzae), a fungus the converts the rice starch to fermentable sugars. The koji is combined with water and also fresh steamed rice, traditionally through hand, and also is sheathe in a blanket and incubated to kind a sweet crumbly dried material. This is then inserted in a vat with more rice and also water. This mixture, permitted to ferment for around four weeks v sake yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), i do not care moto, through an alcoholic contents of about 11 percent. More koji, steamed rice, and also water are added to the vat, and a second fermentation begins, lasting about seven days. Throughout this process, the grain continues to be in a single vat, i m sorry distinguishes services fermentation native fermentation procedures for other species of alcohol, including beer. After resting for an additional week, the services is filtered, pasteurized, and bottled. Alcohol may be included to the preferred level.

In Japan, where it is the national beverage, services is offered with one-of-a-kind ceremony. Prior to being served, the is warmed in a small earthenware or porcelain bottle called a tokkuri; it is usually sipped from a tiny porcelain cup called a sakazuki. Premium sake, that a fragile flavour, is served cold or on ice. Benefits is best when consumed less than a year after ~ bottling.


The manufacture of sake began sometime ~ the advent of wet rice cultivation in Japan in the third century bce. The very first written record referring to sake days from the 3rd century ce, and the an initial reference come its manufacture dates from the 8 hours century. In old Japan benefits was created primarily by the imperial court and also by huge temples and also shrines, but from the early 12th century the general population began come manufacture it. By the at an early stage 16th century the contemporary process because that making sake had been almost perfected. The scarcity of rice during civilization War II, however, led manufacturers to add distilled alcohol come the rice mash, which had actually the unintended impact of significantly increasing services production, allowing manufacturers to more easily fulfill demands. Sake made v the addition of alcohol came to be common thereafter.

Sake is the drink the the kami (gods) the Shintō, the aboriginal Japanese religion. The is drunk in ~ festivals and is included in offerings come the kami. At a Shintō wedding the bridal pair perform a consciousness of drinking sake indigenous lacquer cups.

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The editor of Encyclopaedia lifwynnfoundation.orgThis article was most recently revised and updated by Kara Rogers, an elderly Editor.