Guide E-216 Nancy C. Flores College the Agricultural, Consumer and also Environmental Sciences, brand-new Mexico State University

Author: extension Food an innovation Specialist, department of extension Home Economics, brand-new Mexico State University.

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Introduction

>Cheesemaking techniques vary relying on the intended final use or intake of the cheese. Cheese can have widely differing characteristics.

Italian mozzarella-type cheese, offered in pasta dishes, have to have great melting quality and mild flavor. Difficult cheese such as Romano and Parmesan should be dry with distinct flavor. Mexican cheese, regularly used in fried foods, should be steady at high temperatures. The range among cheeses has emerged from differences in milk quality, diversity among native microflora (microorganisms naturally developing in a given region) and differences in taking care of during processing. In north America cheese is commonly made indigenous the milk the cows (Bos taurus) or goats (Capra aegagrus). In India cheese is regularly made the milk from water buffalo (Bubalus arnee). Yak (Bos grunniens) cheese is made in the internal of Asia.

Cow"s milk consists of 88% water with 3.7% fat, 3.4% protein, 4.8% sugar (lactose), and 0.7% minerals and also vitamins (USDA, 2005). The process of making cheese requires forming a curd from milk solids such as fats, protein and minerals that are separated and also concentrated (Hill, 2006). The discharged liquid, whey, has most of the lactose, water, basic proteins, minerals and vitamins (Hill, 2006). Around 10 pounds (1.25 gallons) of milk are forced to do one pound of cheese.

Making cheese is a dynamic process, affected by time, temperature and also the bacterial society (lactic mountain bacteria) and also coagulating enzyme (rennet) the are provided to concentrate and also separate the casein (milk protein) and also fat indigenous the whey. Exceptions to this incorporate cheeses such as Queso Fresco or Queso Blanco (traditionally consumed in Latin American countries) and also Paneer (traditionally eaten in India), which space made without bacterial cultures or rennet. This cheeses room made by curdling hot milk by including an acid such together vinegar or fruit juice. This kind of fresh cheese is straightforward to make and has greater yield since all the whey proteins generally lost are consisted of in the cheese.

The enzyme rennet causes casein to form chains and to build a mesh-like network or gel, trapping water and also fat. This semisolid gelatin is the curd. Once the gelatin is certain enough, that is cut into little pieces and, after ~ cooking, the whey is removed. The whey might be partially drained native the curd and the curd washed through water to rise its moisture content. The temperature during cooking and handling of the curd affects the texture of the curd and also the type of last product. When the curd has actually reached the desired moisture and also acidity, salt can be added. Salting may be achieved through brine, as with Gouda; surface salt, as with Feta; or dried salt, similar to Cheddar. After ~ salting, the curd might be partially drained and again washed through water to boost the humidity content. As soon as the curds have actually reached the wanted moisture and also acidity (pH), the whey is separated from the curd.

The cheese curd created is a an outcome of bacterial action on lactose converted to lactic acid. The mountain acts together a preservative, clears water from the cheese curd, and develops cheese texture (Hill, 2006). Originally the enzymes from aboriginal microflora develop the smell components, which adjust during aging.

Commercial societies have been developed to create a details cheese type. Yogurt and also buttermilk save on computer live bacteria that have the right to be supplied as a society to make cheese.

Once the whey is removed, the curd is permitted to pole together, developing a mat. The mat is moved to a hoop or mold lined v cheesecloth, i m sorry contributes come the final shape. The mold have the right to be pressed to form a dense cheese (Cheddar) or can be left to settle under its own weight to have actually an open texture (Feta).

Soft cheese can be make at residence without devoted equipment. Due to the fact that soft cheese has over 45% water, that is extremely perishable and also has a refrigerated life that only five to 7 days.

Food safety Concerns

There room four significant pathogens linked with fresh cheese. This can reason foodborne illness. Castle are: Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and also Staphylococcus aureus. These pathogenic bacteria are regulated by great sanitation that equipment and food contact surflifwynnfoundation.org, proper cooking, cooling and handling that cheese curds during processing, and proper hand washing.

Sanitation

to wash hands* and also all equipment with soapy detergent before and after use. rinse all devices with clean safe and clean water, removing all soapy residue. cook all cheese-making equipment in between uses. Soak all cheese-making devices in a bleach-water systems for 2 minutes, before and after use. Maintain energetic chlorine in bleach water (see below). because that best-quality cheese, use new cheesecloth every time you make cheese. (Sterilize cheesecloth by first washing, then boiling or soaking 2 minutes in bleach-water.) Squeaky clean is clean. If you deserve to feel a residue on the equipment, that is not clean.

* Wash hands whenever hands touch dirty or soiled surflifwynnfoundation.org, ~ a sneeze or cough, after ~ bathroom use, ~ eating, or after managing raw milk. Hands should be dried completely with a clean disposable paper towel.

Bleach-water

include one tablespoon that standard household bleach come one gallon the water. Do a new bleach-water solution each time you make cheese. Test chlorine activity of bleach-water ~ above a consistent basis using litmus test record (available in ~ hardware stores). Remake bleach-water if it becomes cloudy v food particles. Bleach-water recipe deserve to be doubled if necessary.

Pasteurization of raw Milk

The pasteurization of life milk is a fragile procedure dependant on temperature and time. That is recommended the the raw milk it is in pasteurized by heating at 60–62.5°C (140–145°F) because that 30 minutes. This warm treatment will ruin pathogenic bacteria that could cause foodborne illness. After pasteurization the milk is cooled to 32–37°C (89.6–98.6°F). Climate the cheese making procedure may begin.

use a cooking thermometer in the milk to measure temperature. Temperature regulate is very important. Carry out not warmth milk end 145°F. The may adjust the texture and flavor of the cheese. Temperature under 140°F will certainly not kill harmful bacteria.

Note: Pasteurized milk accessible at the grocery store store has actually been heat processed and homogenized for a ready-to-drink milk product. This affect milk protein and fat texture. Back homogenized milk can be used, result cheese will have actually a various texture 보다 the timeless cheese.

Selecting Milk and also Cultured Products

The quality of the cheese depends highly on the high quality of the life milk and cultures offered to do the cheese. High quality is impacted by freshness, or age and microbial status of the life milk, and also by the health and wellness of the dairy products cow. Cultures, as currently mentioned, deserve to be obtained directly from a caterer or indirect from yogurt or buttermilk. Regardless of the source of milk and cultures, care must be taken to take care of the cultures properly to prevent microbial contamination that may influence the actions of the culturing agent.

The texture and also flavor of cheese are determined initially by the culturing agents, by the fat content of the milk product used, and also by the lot of moisture left in the product. The milk commodities used in cheese-making add both fat and moisture. Therefore, as soon as the goal is to make a low-fat cheese, the is important to think about that the flavor, texture and also moisture content of a cheese make from low-fat milk will certainly be much different than those the a cheese product v a higher fat content. Table 1 gives information top top the fat content of assorted milk products that may be used in do cheese.

Table 1. Fat content of usual milk commodities (USDA Nutrient Database, 2005)

Dairy Product Fat g/cup (g/240 g)
Whole milk 8
2% milk 5
1% milk 2.5
Skim milk 0.5
Condensed milk 27
Buttermilk 2.2
Half "n" half 28
Heavy cream 88
Light cream 40
Yogurt, plain, nonfat 0.4
Yogurt, plain, lowfat 3.5
Yogurt, plain, totality 7.4

Equipment because that Making Soft Cheese

Thermometer through a temperature selection of 40 come 165°F. Large double boiler with around a 5-quart capacity for 1 gallon of milk. (Two big cooking pots of various sizes have the right to be substituted for a dual boiler.) Spatula long sufficient to with the bottom of the dual boiler. Long-handled spoon. Long-bladed knife. Digital timer or easy-to-read clock. Measure cups, teaspoons. Cheesecloth or muslin, tea towel. Quart strainer to assistance draining cloth. Forms or molds because that shaping the cheese. A homemade press deserve to be made from pan-shaped colander and a salad bowl or a "follower." (Figure 1) A 1-pound coffee deserve to (smooth sided) can likewise be used. Beat holes in the bottom the the deserve to from the inside out so a towel liner will certainly not capture on the metal edges. Make a follower out of the can lid in the same way. A push or maker to put push on the cheese. Can be ~ or glass jars the fit snugly in the coffee have the right to may be offered for this purpose. Brining container do of glass or hefty plastic. Plastic bucket (2-gallon capacity) for whey discharge.

*

Figure 1. Coffee have the right to cheese press. (Taken indigenous C. McDaniel and also P. Kendall, 2004)

Recipes

No-rennet Queso Blanco (Latin American White Cheese)

Recipe adapted from Hill, A.R. (2006)

Heat-acid or no-rennet Queso Blanco is a white, semi-hard cheese do without society or rennet. The is eaten fresh and may it is in flavored v peppers, herbs and spices. The is thought about a "frying cheese" definition it does no melt and may be deep fried or grilled. Queso Blanco can also be made by renneting entirety milk with small or no bacter culture.

Ingredients:

4.6 fl. Oz. (137 ml) vinegar (5% acetic acid) 9.2 fl oz. (274 ml) distilled water 1.0 gallon (3.76 L; 8 lb; 3.63 kg) heat-treated or pasteurized milk 1 tespoon (4.6 g) salt flavors to taste

Procedure:

heat milk to 176°F (80°C) for 20 minutes. include vinegar (5% acetic acid) to water and also then add slowly come the warm milk till the whey is semi-clear and also the curd particles begin to mat together and become slightly stretchy. Friend should be able to stretch a item of curd around 0.39 inch (1 cm) before it breaks. It might not be crucial to add all that the vinegar. different the curd by filtering with a towel bag until totally free whey is removed. job-related in salt and spices to taste. push the curd (high press is not required). package curd in boilable bags (vacuum package if possible) and place in cook water for 5 minutes to sterilize the surface and also prevent mould growth. Queso Blanco might keep for number of weeks if properly packed and stored in a refrigerator, however should be consumed in together fresh a state together possible.

Ricotta Cheese

Recipe adapted from Hill, A.R. (2006)

Ricotta cheese is likewise made by heat-acid precipitation of proteins from blends that milk and also whey. It is used in lasagna or consumed as a side dish along with the main course.

Ingredients:

1 quart (940 ml) vinegar (5% acetic acid) 25 gallons ( 94 L; 200 lb; 90.72 kg) heat-treated or pasteurized whey 2.5 gallons (9.4 L; 20 lb; 9.07 kg) pasteurized totality milk

Procedure:

include whole milk to fresh whey, then warm to 185°F (85°C). Heating need to begin automatically after the whey is eliminated from the curd come prevent further acidification by the lactic mountain bacteria. Some tiny curd particles will certainly form. gradually add around 2 teaspoons that vinegar every quart of whey through gentle agitation. You will certainly see much more curd particles forming and also the whey will become less "milky." Pour into a cloth to separate the curds. ~ the curd is dripped dry it is prepared to eat.

Note: More vinegar may be added depending top top the amount of milk used. Continue including vinegar till the whey is rather clear. By including the vinegar progressively over a time duration of about 5 minutes you will obtain far better quality curd and also it will certainly be simpler to recognize when to stop.

Cheese Made v Rennet

Rennet is accessible as a tablet or liquid. One teaspoon fluid rennet is identical to one tablet. Either type must be totally dissolved in cold tap water. Hard water have to be neutralized by adding 1/4 cup milk come water prior to the addition of rennet.

SAFE Queso Fresco (Fresh Cheese)

Recipe adapted from "Abuela project," Washington State university (2002).

This recipe to be designed to replace Queso Fresco made v raw milk after rise in Salmonella outbreaks in Yakima County, Washington. Queso Fresco has a grainy, soft crumbly texture and a mild, fresh flavor. This cheese can be eaten in crumbly piece in salads however holds up fine to heating, both baking and broiling.

Ingredients:

One tablet computer rennet or 1 tsp fluid rennet liquified in 1/2 cup tap water One quart (0.95 L; 2.15 lb; 911 g) cultured buttermilk for society Two quarts (1.89 L; 4.3 lb; 1.9 kg) heat-treated or pasteurized milk seven teaspoons (35 ml) white vinegar (5% acidity) 2 teaspoons (9.3 g) salt

Procedure:

Mix one quart cultured buttermilk through two quarts heat-treated or pasteurized milk. add 7 teaspoons white vinegar come the milk mixture. Mix well. warmth milk come 90°F (32.22°C). Remove pan from the heat. include rennet mixture and mix for around 2 minutes. Let stand for 30–40 minutes till curd is firm. cut curd into 1-inch cubes and also let was standing for around 5 minutes. warmth curds and also whey to 115°F (46.11°C) there is no stirring. Eliminate pan indigenous heat, then let was standing for 5 minutes. to water mix through cheesecloth and enable whey to drainpipe for 5 minutes. kind curd into a ball and also twist the cheesecloth gently to squeeze the end the whey. rest up curds right into a bowl and add 2 teaspoons of salt. Mix in salt and also let was standing for 5 minutes, climate squeeze again as before. location curd in mold to kind the cheese overnight in the refrigerator. eliminate cheese from mold and package in an air-tight container. keep cheese refrigerated throughout storage.

Neufchatel

Recipe adapted from C. McDaniel and P. Kendal (2004)

Neufchatel (New-sha-TEL) is a milky-white cheese through a soft, smooth texture and also is short in fat if made through reduced-fat or fat-free milk.

Ingredients:

1 gallon (3.79 L; 8.6 lb; 3.9 kg) pasteurized milk (any level of fat) One tablet computer rennet or 1 tsp fluid rennet liquified in 1/2 cup tap water1/2 cup (4 fl oz; 114 g) fresh cultured unsalted buttermilk or 1/4 cup (2 fl oz; 57 g) fresh plain yogurt for culture3 teaspoons (14 g) salt (optional)

Procedure:

placed 1 gallon that milk right into the upper part of a dual boiler. Include enough water in the bottom of dual boiler to protect against milk from scorching. Row in buttermilk or yogurt and warm slowly to 92 to 94°F (33.33 come 34.4°C). Preserve this temperature range through actions 2 and also 3. include rennet mixture and also stir right into milk because that 2 to 3 minutes. Enable milk to collection undisturbed for around 30 minute or till a firm gel forms. To test for curd formation, cut a cleft in the curd with a metal spatula, on slide under the curd and also lift slightly. If the cut in the curd division clean, that is ready for action 3. reduced the curd into around 1-inch cubes. Row gently and continuously because that 20 come 30 minute to help firm curds. Save the temperature range 90 to 94°F (32.22 come 34.4°C). to water off whey (yellow liquid). Allow the curds come settle, and dip out the continuing to be whey. add 1 teaspoon salt, mix gently. Wait 5 minutes and mix in the second teaspoon salt. Wait 5 much more minutes and also mix in the last teaspoon salt. division the curds into two batches and also proceed as follows for each batch. Line 2 coffee cans v clean cheesecloth or muslin. Place half of the cheese curd inside each inside wall can. Wrinkles the cloth over the height and add the follower. use pressure by pressing with a weight, such together a number 303 deserve to of food, until the surface ar is smooth (2 to 4 hours). Perform this in the sink to allow the whey to drainpipe out of the cans. remove the developed cheese and also the cloth. Plunder the cheese strict in plastic or in waxed paper and keep in refrigerator. That will save for 7 to ten work under refrigeration. It have the right to be frozen for four to 6 months. However, freeze lowers the high quality of the cheese.

Cream Cheese

Recipe adjusted from C. McDaniel and P. Kendal (2004)

Cream cheese has actually a mild, smooth texture and a slim citrus flavor balanced with buttery cream. Cream cheese have the right to be mixed with fruit and seasonings, supplied as a emboldened or spread, or provided in desserts such together cheesecake.

Ingredients:

3 1/2 quarts (3.3 L; 6.45 lb; 2.92 kg) pasteurized entirety milk 1 pint (473.2 ml) pasteurized whipping cream 3/4 to 1 cup (6-8 fl oz; 177 ml; 242 g) fresh buttermilk because that culture1 1/2 teaspoons (7.12 g) salt (optional) One tablet rennet or 1 tsp fluid rennet liquified in 1/2 cup insanity water

Procedure:

location milk, cream and starter in dual boiler. Warm to 85°F (29.4°C). include rennet mixture, then stir gently for 4 minutes. covering the milk and also let stand for 1 hour or until the whey consists the curd and also breaks clean native the side of the pan. Preserve a temperature the 85°F (29.4°C). cut curd right into 1-inch cubes and allow to was standing undisturbed because that 5 minutes. to water mixture into a muslin bag or cheesecloth-lined colander. Drainpipe overnight in the refrigerator. with a wooden spoon, occupational in 1 1/2 teaspoons salt. Package and store cream cheese in the refrigerator.

Pizza Cheese

Recipe adjusted from C. McDaniel and also P. Kendal (2004)

Also recognized as mozzarella, this fresh cheese is very mild in flavor and adds structure to cooking dishes. Fresh cheese deserve to be stored in water but must be eaten within two days.

Ingredients:

1 gallon (3.79 L; 8.63 lb; 3.91 kg) 2% milk OR 2 quarts (1.9 L; 4.3lb; 1.95 kg) totality milk to add 2 quarts skim milk 1/4 cup (2 fl oz; 57 g) fresh, plain yogurt One tablet rennet or 1 tsp liquid rennet liquified in 1/2 cup tap waterBrine: use 2 pounds (907 g) that salt every gallon (3.78 l) of water

Procedure:

warm milk come 90°F (32.22°C) and include yogurt. Stir slowly for 15 minute while preserving this consistent temperature. include rennet mixture and stir because that 3 to 5 minutes. Cover, preserving temperature at 90°F (32.22°C). Enable to stand till coagulated, about 30 minutes. cut curd into 1/2-inch (1.27cm) cubes. Allow to was standing for 15 minutes through occasional stirring. slowly increase temperature to 118°F (47.77°C) end a period of 45 minutes. Organize this temperature for secondary 15 minutes. (Total time for this step is 1 hour.) enable curd to work out under whey. Remove whey and also transfer the mat the curd come a level pan that can be retained warm. Execute not cut mat, however turn it over every 15 minutes because that a 2-hour period. Mat must be tight as soon as finished. cut the mat right into long strips 1 to 2 inch (2.5–5 cm) wide. Placed curd in warm water (180°F; 82°C). Making use of wooden spoons, tumble and also stretch the under water till it i do not care elastic, about 15 minutes. eliminate curd from hot water and shape it by hand into a sphere or a loaf. Ar cheese in cold water (40°F; 4.4°C) for approximately 1 hour. eliminate cheese native cold water and put it into a saturated salt solution. To prepare salt brine, save the brine cold (40 come 50°F; 4.4 come 9.9°C) when the cheese is in it. Excess salt will remain on the bottom, i m sorry is normal. Since a brine equipment is corrosive, ar in a heavy plastic, glass or pottery container. Cover any exposed areas of cheese through dry salt. Leaving cheese in the brine for 24 hours. eliminate cheese indigenous brine and let it dried for numerous hours. Wrap in plastic wrap and refrigerate. This cheese may be used instantly or save on computer under refrigeration because that one week.

Resources available Online

Dairy connection Incorporated http://www.dairyconnection.com/ This site sells products useful for making and customizing cheese: coloring, cheese wax, cheese ladles, cheese cloths, draining mats, and thermometers.

Danlac.com http://www.danlac.com/ here you can uncover rennet and also other enzymes, equipment, starter cultures and also information on cultures.

Glengarry Cheesemaking and Dairy Supply http://glengarrycheesemaking.on.ca/ right here you can discover cheese presses, molds, rennet, ripening racks, dry racks, cheese vats, pasteurizers (both commercial and also non-commercial), curd cutters, coatings, waxes, kits, videos, etc.

Junket http://www.junketdesserts.com/ This site gives information top top rennet products and recipes because that soft cheese and also custard desserts.

Moorlands Cheesemakers http://www.cheesemaking.co.uk/ right here you have the right to buy cheese making kits of all sorts, as well as molds, rennet etc., return this website is based in the joined Kingdom, shipments have the right to be accepted in the U.S..

New England Cheesemaking supply Company http://www.cheesemaking.com/ This website is because that non-commercial cheese makers. They market many complete kits for cheese making.

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References

Hill, A.R. (2006). Cheese. College of Guelph. Available at: http://www.foodsci.uoguelph.ca/dairyedu/cheese2.html

McDaniel, C. And Kendall, P. (2004). Do Soft Cheeses. Colorado State university Extension file no. 9.337. Accessible at: http://www.ext.colostate.edu/PUBS/foodnut/09337.html

U.S. Department of Agriculture, farming Research Service. (2005) USDA national Nutrient Database for typical Reference, relax 18. Nutrient Data Laboratory residence Page. Accessible at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl

Washington State university (2002). New cheese make safely. Pacific Northwest expansion publication. Easily accessible at: http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/pnw0539/pnw0539.pdf

To find more resources for your business, home, or family, visit the university of Agricultural, Consumer and also Environmental sciences on the World broad Web in ~ lifwynnfoundation.org.

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