Rooms in a medieval Castle

Rooms in a middle ages are mainly recognisable by their contemporary counterparts in more modest homes. Kitchens room still kitchens. So are pantries and also larders. So room cellars. Bed chambers are now well-known as bedrooms. Latrines have become lavatories and also bathrooms. Halls have morphed right into entrance halls and dining rooms have taken over among their key functions. Solars, Cabinets and Boudoirs have become sitting rooms, libraries and dressing rooms. Ice residences have been replaced by refrigerators.

Below space the key rooms uncovered in medieval castles and big manor houses.

Bower in ~ Smithills

The good Hall

A good hall is the key room of a royal palace, nobleman"s lock or a huge manor residence in the center Ages, and in the country houses of the 16th and also early 17th centuries. Great halls were uncovered especially in France, England and Scotland, but comparable rooms were also found in some various other European countries.

In the medieval duration the room would simply have been referred to as the "hall" uneven the building additionally had a second hall, yet the hatchet "great hall" has actually been predominant for enduring rooms the this kind for numerous centuries to identify them native the different kind of hall found in post-medieval houses.

A typical good hall was a rectangular room between one and a fifty percent and three times as lengthy as it to be wide, and also higher than it to be wide. The was gotten in through a screens passage at one end, and had home windows on among the long sides, regularly including a large bay window. There was regularly a minstrel"s gallery above the screens passage. In ~ the other finish of the hall was the dais whereby the peak table was situated. The lord"s family"s much more private rooms lay beyond the dais end of the hall, and also the kitchen, buttery and pantry were on the opposite side of the displays passage.

Even the royal and noble residences had few living rooms in the middle Ages, and a an excellent hall to be a multifunction room. That was provided for receiving guests and it was the ar where the family would dine together, including the lord of the house, his gentleman attendants and also at the very least some of the servants. At night part members the the household could sleep ~ above the floor that the an excellent hall. From time to time the might likewise serve as the lord"s courtroom.

The good hall would regularly have among the larger fireplaces of the palace, manor house or castle, frequently big enough come walk and also stand inside it. The was offered for warm and also for few of the cooking, return for larger structures a medieval kitchen would certainly customarily lied on a lower level for the mass of cooking. Typically the fireplace would certainly have fancy overmantle with stone or hardwood carvings or also plasterwork which could contain coats of arms, heraldic mottoes (usually in Latin), caryatids or other adornment.

In the top halls of French manor houses, the fireplaces were typically very large and elaborate. Typically, the great hall had actually the most beautiful decorations in it, as well as on the window frame mouldings ~ above the outer wall. Countless French manor dwellings have an extremely beautifully decorated external home window frames on the large mullioned home windows that light the hall. This decoration clearly marked the home window as belonging come the lord"s private hall. That was where guests slept.

In west France, the at an early stage manor residences were centered approximately a central ground-floor hall. Later, the hall reserved for the lord and his high-ranking guest was moved up to the first-floor level. This was referred to as the salle haute or top hall (or "high room"). In some of the bigger three-storey manor houses, the top hall was as high as 2nd storey roof. The smaller ground-floor room or salle basse remained but was because that receiving guest of any social order.

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<1> it is really common to discover these 2 halls superimposed, one on height of the other, in larger manor houses in Normandy and Brittany. Access from the ground-floor hall to the top (great) room was usually via an exterior staircase tower. The top hall often contained the lord"s bedroom and living soldier off one end.

Occasionally the good hall would have an early listening device system permitting conversations to be heard in the lord"s bedroom above. In Scotland these tools are referred to as a laird"s lug. In plenty of French manor residences there are small peep-holes indigenous which the lord could observe what was happening in the hall. This kind of surprise peep-hole is called a judas in French.

Many good halls survive. 2 very large surviving imperial halls room Westminster Hall and the Wenceslas hall in Prague Castle. Penshurst ar in Kent, England has actually a small altered 14th century example. Making it through 16th century and early 17th century specimens in England, Wales and Scotland room numerous, for example those in ~ Longleat (England), Burghley home (England), Bodysgallen room (Wales), Muchalls lock (Scotland) and Crathes lock (Scotland).

By the so late 1700s the great hall was beginning to lose its purpose. The greater centralisation of power in royal hands supposed that guys of good social stand were much less inclined to get in the company of a lord in bespeak to obtain his protection. As the society gap in between master and servant grew, over there was less reason because that them come dine together and also servants were banished native the hall. In fact, servants were not usually allowed to usage the very same staircases as nobles to accessibility the an excellent hall of larger castles in at an early stage times; because that example, the servants" staircases are still extant in places such together Muchalls Castle. The other living rooms in country houses became much more numerous, specialised and also important, and also by the late 17th century the halls the many brand-new houses were just vestibules, passed through to acquire to what else, yet not live in.

Many colleges at Durham, Cambridge, Oxford and St andrew universities have halls top top the an excellent hall version which are still supplied as dining rooms ~ above a daily basis, the largest in such use being that of university College, Durham. So perform the inns of Court in London and also King"s College school in Wimbledon. The "high table" (often ~ above a little dais at the optimal of the hall, farthest away native the displays passage) seats dons (at the universities) and also Masters of the Bench (at the motel of Court), whilst student (at the universities) and also barristers or college student (at the inns of Court) dine at tables inserted at appropriate angles come the high table and also running under the body of the hall, thus reproducing the hierarchical setup of the medieval household.

From the 16th century onwards halls shed most of their traditional functions to an ext specialised rooms, both for family members and guests (e.g. Dining parlours, drawing rooms), and for servants (e.g. Servants halls and also servants bedrooms in attics or basements) . The halls of 17, 18th and 19th nation houses and palaces typically functioned almost entirely together vestibules, also if they to be architecturally impressive. There was a renewal of the an excellent hall ide in the so late 19th and early 20th centuries, with huge halls offered for banqueting and also entertaining (but no as eating or sleeping areas for servants) special in some homes of this duration as component of a broader medieval revival, for example Thoresby Hall.

great Hall at Hampton Court royal residence

The great Hall in ~ Christ Church College, Oxford

The an excellent Hall in ~ Lincoln"s Inn
The great Hall in Barley Hall,York, revitalized to replicate its illustration in around 1483. Notification the fireplace in the center of the room.
The great Hall of Gainsborough Old room - keep in mind the fireplace in the centre of the room and additionally the 3 doorways to the buttery, pantry and also kitchens.

Bed Chambers

The room in the castle dubbed the Lords and also Ladies Chamber, or the good Chamber, to be intended for use as a bedroom and also used by the lord and also lady of the castle - it also afforded some privacy because that the noble household of the castle. This type of room was originally a partitioned room i m sorry was included to the end of the good Hall. The Lords and Ladies chamber were subsequently located on an top floor as soon as it was called the solar.

The lord and lady"s an individual attendants were fortunate to stay with their grasp or mistress in their separate sleeping quarters. However, lock slept top top the floor covering in a blanket, but, at the very least on the floor, they could absorb some of the warm of the fireplace. Even during the warmest months of the year, the castle maintained a cool dampness and also all inhabitants spent as much time as feasible enjoying the outdoors. Oftentimes, members wrapped blankets roughly themselves come keep warmth while at job-related (from which we derive the ax bedclothes).

The lord, his family and also guests had the included comfort of heavy blankets, feather mattresses, hair covers, and tapestries hanging top top the walls to block the damp and also breezes, while citizens of lesser status usually slept in the towers and made due through lighter bedclothes and also the human body for warmth.

Viollet-le-Duc"s impression of a XIV to XV Century lock Bed room

The Solar

The room in the castle called the Solar to be intended because that sleeping and also private quarters and used by the Lord"s family. It came to be a exclusive sitting room favoured through the family. The solar suite of rooms was expanded to encompass a wardrobe.

The solar to be a room in numerous English and French middle ages manor houses, an excellent houses and also castles. In such homes a need was feel for much more privacy to be appreciated by the head of the household, and, especially, through the an elderly women that the household. The solar to be a room because that their details benefit, in which they might be alone (or sole) and away from the hustle, bustle, noise and smells that the an excellent Hall.

The solar was normally smaller than the an excellent Hall, because it to be not expected to accommodate so numerous people, but it was a room of comfort and also status, and usually consisted of a fireplace and also often decorate woodwork or tapestries/wall hangings.

In manor homes of western France, the solar was sometimes a separate tower or pavilion, away from the ground-floor hall and upper hall (great hall) come provide more privacy come the feudal lord and his family.

The etymology that solar is regularly mistaken for having to carry out with the sun but this is not so. This error may result from the usual usage that the solar; embroidery, reading, writing, and also other normally solitary activities. These activities would need great sunlight, and also it is true that many solars were developed facing southern to take maximum advantage of daylight hours, however that characteristic was neither compelled nor the source of the name. The name fell out of use after the 16 century and also its later tantamount was the illustration room.

Solar in ~ Kentwell
Solar in ~ Smithills, Bolton

Bathrooms, Lavatories and also Garderobes

Bathrooms, so common in the classical people disappeared in medieval Europe - except in monasteries. Other than in particular circumstances baths to be not required for ordinary people - till Victorian times cleanliness was fundamentally ungodly.

Baths to be taken in transportable wood tubs, In summer the sun can warm the water and the bather. The bathtub could be relocated inside once the weather worsened.

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Privacy to be ensured through a tent or canopy.

In English a garderobe has involved mean a primitive toilet in a castle or other middle ages building, commonly a basic hole discharging come the outside. Such commodes were regularly placed inside a tiny chamber, leading by combination to the usage of the hatchet garderobe to describe them.

Technically garderobes were little rooms or big cupboards (closets) in i m sorry the latrine was located. This closets were regularly used for storing valuables

A summary of the garderobe at Donegal castle suggests that during the time once the castle garderobe to be in use it was thought that ammonia to be a disinfectant and that visitor"s coats and also cloaks were preserved in the garderobe.

Depending top top the framework of the building, garderobes can lead to cess pits or moats. Plenty of can still be checked out in Norman and also Medieval castles and fortifications. They became obsolete v the advent of at home plumbing.

Given the most likely updrafts in a medieval castle, a chamber pot generally remained close come the bedside.