geography The research of the physical attributes of the earth. Includes study of regional formations and also their relationship to humans.latitude lines imagine lines running horizontally approximately the globe. Additionally called parallels, latitude lines room equidistant from every other. Each level of latitude is about 69 mile (110 km) apart. Zero degrees (0) latitude is the equator, the widest circumference of the globe. Latitude is measured from 0 to 90 north and also 0 to 90 south?90 phibìc is the phibìc Pole and also 90 southern is the southern Pole.longitude linesImaginary lines, likewise called meridians, to run vertically roughly the globe. Uneven latitude lines, longitude lines room not parallel. Meridians accomplish at the poles and are widest apart at the equator. Zero degrees longitude (0) is called the element meridian. The degrees of longitude operation 180 east and also 180 west from the prime meridian.geographic coordinatesLatitude and longitude lines form an imaginary grid end the Earth"https://www.lifwynnfoundation.org/s surface. By combining longitude and latitude measurements, any location on earth can be determined. The units of measurement for geographic coordinates are degrees (), minutes (?), and also seconds (?). Prefer a circle, the earth has 360 degrees. Each level is split into 60 minutes, which consequently is separated into 60 seconds. Latitude and also longitude coordinates also include cardinal directions: phibìc or southern of the equator because that latitude, and also east or west the the prime meridian because that longitude. The geographic coordinates of new York City, because that example, room 40 N, 74 W, meaning that it is situated 40 degrees north latitude and 74 degrees west longitude. Making use of minutes and seconds and degrees, the collaborates for brand-new York would be 4042?51? N, 740?23? W. (Latitude is always listed first.) A less typical format because that listing coordinates is in decimal degrees. The Tropic that Cancer, for example, deserve to be express in degrees and minutes (2330? N) or in decimal levels (23.5 N).continental driftTheory the the earth"https://www.lifwynnfoundation.org/s continents at one time were once component of a singular landmass. The is thought that the continents have spread out due to plate tectonics.hemisphereA hemisphere is half the Earth"https://www.lifwynnfoundation.org/s surface. The four hemispheres space the Northern and Southern hemispheres, divided by the equator (0 latitude), and also the Eastern and also Western hemispheres, split by the element meridian (0 longitude) and the International day Line (180).equatorZero degrees latitude. The sunlight is directly overhead the equator in ~ noon on the 2 equinoxes (March and also Sept. 20 or 21). The equator divides the globe into the Northern and also Southern hemispheres. The equator appears halfway in between the North and South poles, at the widest one of the globe. The is 24,901.55 mile (40,075.16 km) long.prime meridianZero degrees longitude (0). The prime meridian runs with the royal Greenwich Observatory in Greenwich, England (the ar was created in 1884 by global agreement). The element meridian divides the world into the Western and also Eastern hemispheres. The Earth"https://www.lifwynnfoundation.org/s time zones space measured indigenous the prime meridian. The moment at 0 is called Universal Time (UT) or Greenwich median Time (GMT). With the Greenwich meridian as the beginning point, each 15 east and also west clues a brand-new time zone. The 24 time zones prolong east and west around the globe for 180 to the International day Line. When it is noon along the element meridian, that is midnight along the International date Line.International day LineLocated in ~ 180 longitude (180 E and 180 W space the exact same meridian). Areas to the east of the International day Line space counted as being one calendar day earlier than the areas to the west. Return the International day Line generally complies with the 180 meridian (most of i beg your pardon lies in the Pacific Ocean), the does diverge in places. Because 180 runs through numerous countries, it would certainly divide those countries not simply right into two various time zones, but into two various calendar days. To protect against such unnecessary confusion, the day line dips and bends approximately countries to allow them come share the very same time.tropicsAlso referred to as the torrid region or tropic zone, every the water and land the the earth in between the Tropic that Cancer and the Tropic the Capricorn. The tropics experience at least one day every year in i beg your pardon the sun passes directly overhead.Tropic that CancerA heat of latitude situated at 2330? phibìc of the equator. The sun is directly overhead the Tropic of Cancer on the summer solstice in the northern Hemisphere (June 20 or 21). It marks the northernmost suggest of the tropics, i m sorry falls in between the Tropic the Cancer and also the Tropic the Capricorn.Tropic of CapricornA line of latitude situated at 2330? south. The sunlight is directly overhead the Tropic of Capricorn top top the summer solstice in the southerly Hemisphere (Dec. 20 or 21). The marks the southernmost allude of the tropics.Arctic CircleA line of latitude situated at 6630? north, delineating the northern Frigid Zone that the Earth.Antarctic CircleA line of latitude situated at 6630? south, delineating the southerly Frigid Zone the the Earth.globeThe many accurate map of the Earth, duplicating that is spherical shape and also relative size.polePoint at which the planet turns; the north and south poles show the axis on which the planet rotates.mapRepresentation of a physical aircraft with selective information. Maps represent a definite area and contain comprehensive geographical information.atlasCombination that maps and also charts. One atlas usually has geographical information, as well as varied non-geographical information (population statistics, sea levels, etc.) around a details location.compassA directional machine that is make of a magnetic needle the synchronizes through the north and also south poles.climate mapsGive basic information about the climate and also precipitation (rain and also snow) that a region. Cartographers, or mapmakers, use colors come show various climate or precipitation zones.economic or source mapsFeature the kind of organic resources or economic activity that dominates an area. Cartographers use signs to present the places of natural resources or economic activities. Because that example, oranges top top a map the Florida phone call you that oranges room grown there.physical mapsIllustrate the physical attributes of one area, such as the mountains, rivers and also lakes. The water is usually presented in blue. Colour are offered to display relief-differences in soil elevations. Environment-friendly is frequently used at lower elevations, and also orange or brown indicate greater elevations.political mapsDo not show physical features. Instead, they suggest state and national boundaries and also capital and major cities. A capital city is usually marked with a star within a circle.road mapsShow major-some minor highways-and roads, airports, railroad tracks, cities and also other point out of interest in an area. Human being use roadway maps to plan trips and also for control directions.topographic mapsInclude edge lines to show the shape and also elevation of one area. Present that room close together indicate steep terrain, and lines the are far apart indicate flat terrain.map projectionsTwo-dimensional depictions of the three-dimensional Earth. Due to the fact that projections effort to existing the spherical planet on a level plane, they inevitably develop distortions. Map projections are numerous and facility (e.g., there space a range of cylindrical, conic, or azimuthal projections). Each projection has advantages and serves different purposes, and each produce different species of distortions in direction, distance, shape, and also relative size of areas. Among the most renowned projections is the Mercator, produced by Geradus Mercator in 1569. That is a rectangular-shaped map in which every longitude and latitude lines are parallel and intersect at best angles (on a globe, meridians are not parallel, however grow narrower, at some point converging in ~ the poles). Close to the equator, the range of the Mercator is accurate, yet the furthermore one moves toward the poles, the higher the distortion?Antarctica in the much south and also Greenland in the far north, because that example, appear gigantic. The Mercator projection was supplied well right into the 20th century, yet has now been superseded by others, including the widely provided Robinson projection. The Robinson projection is one elliptical-shaped map with a flat top and also bottom. Occurred in 1963 by Arthur H. Robinson, the is an orthophanic (?right appearing?) projection, i beg your pardon attempts come reflect the spherical appearance of the Earth. The meridians, because that example, are curved arcs, which provides the level map a three-dimensional appearance.

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But to convey the likeness the a curved, three-dimensional globe, the Robinson projection should in fact distort shape, area, scale, and distance. The Albers, Lambert, Mollweide, and also Winkel Tripel are several of the other typically used map projections.