Foam is an object formed by trapping pockets of gas in a liquid or solid. A bathtub sponge and also the head on a glass of beer are instances of foams. In most foams, the volume of gas is large, v thin films of fluid or solid separating the regions of gas. Soap foams are additionally known as suds.

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Solid foams deserve to be closed-cell or open-cell. In closed-cell foam, the gas forms discrete pockets, each c


where γ is the surface tension.


where  is the volume the the bubble, 

 is the acceleration because of gravity, and ρ1 is the density of the gas ρ2 is the thickness of the liquid. The pressure working versus the buoyancy force is the surface tension force, i m sorry is


where γ is the surface ar tension, and 

 is the radius that the orifice. As more air is pushed right into the bubble, the buoyancy force grows quicker than the surface anxiety force. Thus, losing occurs once the buoyancy force is large enough to conquer the surface stress force.

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In addition, if the bubble is treated together a sphere with a radius of 

 and the volume  is substituted in to the equation above, separation occurs at the minute when


Examining this phenomenon indigenous a capillarity ideology for a bubble the is being formed an extremely slowly, it deserve to be assumed that the pressure 

 inside is continuous everywhere. The hydrostatic pressure in the fluid is designated by 
. The change in pressure throughout the user interface from gas to fluid is same to the capillary pressure; hence,


where R1 and R2 are the radii of curvature and are set as positive. At the stem the the bubble, R3 and R4 are the radii that curvature likewise treated together positive. Right here the hydrostatic press in the liquid needs to take in account z, the distance from the optimal to the stem that the bubble. The new hydrostatic push at the stem the the bubble is p0(ρ1 − ρ2)z. The hydrostatic push balances the capillary pressure, which is displayed below:


Finally, the difference in the top and also bottom press equal the adjust in hydrostatic pressure:


At the stem the the bubble, the shape of the balloon is nearly cylindrical; consequently, one of two people R3 or R4 is big while the other radius that curvature is small. Together the stem that the bubble grow in length, it becomes more unstable as one of the radius grows and also the other shrinks. At a specific point, the vertical length of the stem exceeds the one of the stem and also due to the buoyancy pressures the balloon separates and the process repeats.


Liquid foams

Liquid foams have the right to be provided in fire retardant foam, such together those the are offered in extinguishing fires, especially oil fires.

In some ways, leavened bread is a foam, together the yeast causes the bread to increase by developing tiny bubbles of gas in the dough. The dough has actually traditionally been taken as a closed-cell foam, in i beg your pardon the pores do not affix with each other. Cut the dough publication the gas in the bubbles that room cut, however the gas in the rest of the dough can not escape. Once dough is permitted to climb too far, it becomes an open-cell foam, in which the gas pockets room connected. Now, if the dough is cut or the surface ar otherwise broken, a large volume of gas deserve to escape, and also the dough collapses. The open structure of one over-risen dough is basic to observe: rather of consist of of discrete gas bubbles, the dough is composed of a gas space filled through threads of the flour-water paste. Current research has indicated that the pore framework in bread is 99% interconnected right into one big vacuole, therefore the closed-cell foam of the moist dough is transformed right into an open up cell solid foam in the bread.

The distinctive property the gas-liquid foams having very high certain surface area is exploited in the chemical processes of froth flotation and foam fractionation.

Solid foams

Solid foams are a class of lightweight cellular engineering materials. These foams are commonly classified right into two types based on your pore structure: open-cell-structured foams (also well-known as reticulated foams) and also closed-cell foams. At high sufficient cell resolutions, any kind can be treated as continuous or “continuum” materials and also are referred to as cellular solids, through predictable mechanical properties.

Open-cell-structured foams save on computer pores the are associated to each various other and form an interconnected network the is relatively soft. Open-cell foams fill with everything gas surrounds them. If filled v air, a relatively great insulator results, but, if the open cells fill through water, insulation properties would certainly be reduced. Recent studies have actually put the emphasis on researching the nature of open-cell foams together an insulator material. Wheat gluten/TEOS bio-foams have actually been produced, showing comparable insulator properties as for those foams derived from oil-based resources. Foam rubber is a form of open-cell foam.

Closed-cell foams do not have interconnected pores. The closed-cell foams typically have higher compressive strength due to their structures. However, closed-cell foams space also, in general an ext dense, require much more material, and as a repercussion are more expensive to produce. The closed cells deserve to be filled v a dedicated gas to provide improved insulation. The closed-cell structure foams have higher dimensional stability, short moisture absorb coefficients, and greater strength compared to open-cell-structured foams. All types of foam space widely provided as core material in sandwich-structured composite materials.

The faster known engineering use of to move solids is v wood, which in that dry form is a closed-cell foam composed of lignin, cellulose, and also air. From the early on 20th century, various species of specially manufactured solid foams came into use. The low density of these foams provides them great as thermal insulators and flotation devices and their lightness and compressibility make them right as pack materials and also stuffings.

An instance of the use of azodicarbonamide  as a blowing agent is uncovered in the manufacture of vinyl (PVC) and EVA-PE foams, wherein it theatre a duty in the formation of air balloon by breaking down right into gas in ~ high temperature.

The arbitrarily or “stochastic” geometry of this foams provides them an excellent for energy absorption, together well. In the late 20th century to early 21st century, brand-new manufacturing approaches have permitted for geometry that outcomes in terrific strength and also stiffness per weight. These brand-new materials are generally referred to together engineered moving solids. 

Syntactic foam

A special class of closed-cell foams, recognized as construction foam, contains hollow particles embedded in a procession material. The spheres deserve to be made from number of materials, including glass, ceramic, and polymers. The benefit of syntactic foams is the they have a very high strength-to-weight ratio, making castle ideal materials for plenty of applications, including deep-sea and room applications. One details syntactic foam employs shape storage polymer as the matrix, enabling the foam to take on the features of form memory materials and composite materials; i.e., it has the capacity to it is in reshaped repeatedly as soon as heated above a particular temperature and also cooled. Shape memory foams have actually many possible applications, such together dynamic structure support, flexible foam core, and expandable foam fill.

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Integral skin foam

Integral skin foam, additionally known as self-skin foam, is a type of foam through a high-density skin and also a low-density core. It can be created in an open-mold process or a closed-mold process. In the open-mold process, two reactive contents are mixed and also poured into an open mold. The mold is then closed and also the mixture is enabled to expand and also cure. Instances of items developed using this process include arm rests, baby seats, shoe soles, and mattresses. The closed-mold process, more commonly known as reaction injection molding (RIM), injects the mixed components into a closeup of the door mold under high pressures.