This article intends to carry out a far better understanding that gold’s unique physical and chemical properties that enable it come be used in a wide range of valuable applications.

Gold (Au) has an atomic number of 79, which way each gold atom includes 79 protons in that is nucleus. Gold’s atomic mass is 196.967 and its atomic radius is 0.1442 nm. Notably, this number is smaller sized than the theoretical prediction.

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Origin that Color

The means the external electrons room arranged around the yellow nucleus is associated with the properties yellow color of gold. A metal’s shade is based on the activity of electrons in between energy bands.

The problems for the strong absorption of irradiate at the wavelengths important to develop the characteristic gold shade are met through a change from the d-band to vacant location in the conduction band. The warm and attractive color of gold has actually led to its considerable use in ornaments.

Isotopes of Gold

While the number of protons in a yellow nucleus is resolved at 79, the number of neutrons have the right to differ from one atom come the other, giving several isotopes of gold. However, over there is just one secure non-radioactive isotope that renders up for all naturally uncovered gold.

Crystal structure of Gold

Metallic gold has a crystal framework that is a face-centered cubic FCC. This crystal structure is responsible because that the really high ductility of gold, as FCC lattices are mainly suited for enabling the movement of dislocations in the lattice. Together a dislocation activity is crucial to achieve high ductility.

Density of Gold

The thickness of gold is 19.3 gcm-3 and this depends on its atomic mass as well as its decision structure. This makes gold quite heavy than particular other typical materials. Because that instance, aluminum’s density is 2.7 gcm-3 and also steel’s thickness is just 7.87 gcm-3.

Melting and also Boiling points of Gold

Pure gold has actually a melting suggest of 1064 °C. However, as soon as alloyed with other elements like copper or silver, the gold alloy will melt over a range of temperatures. The boiling suggest of gold, when gold alters from a liquid state come a gas state, is 2860 °C.

The Conductivity that Heat and also Electricity

Gold can effectively transfer heat and also electricity and this ability is surpassed only by silver and also copper, yet unlike this metals, yellow does not tarnish, making it vital in electronics.

Gold’s electric resistivity is 0.022 micro-ohm m at 20 °C, and its thermal conductivity is 310 W m-1 K-1 at the same temperature. The corrosion resistance of gold is possibly one of its most an important properties. Electrode potentials are a beneficial technique for signifying the propensity of steel to corrode.

Electrode potentials room measured v respect to hydrogen, and an electrochemical collection can be prepared for steels as presented below. That is no surprise that gold takes the top ar in the series, signifying its high corrosion resistance. In practice, this steel is corroded only by a mixture that nitric acid and hydrochloric acid (aqua regia). Gold does not tarnish even when used on a everyday basis.

Table 1.The electrode potential that gold and related elements

Electrode Potential (V)Element


Gold is highly malleable (the degree to i m sorry a material deserve to experience deformation in compression before failure). In the annealed state, gold deserve to be hammered cold right into a translucent wafer with a thickness that 0.000013 cm. One oz of gold have the right to be hammered right into a sheet covering over 9 m2 and also 0.000018 cm thick.


Gold is ductile (the level of expansion that bring away place before the fail of a product in tension) and also one ounce can be drawn into 80 kilometres (50 miles) of thin gold wire (5-µm diameter), to create electrical contacts and also bonding wire.

Young's Modulus

The Young’s modulus that elasticity that a material is linked with stiffness or rigidity and is characterized as the ratio in between the anxiety applied and the elastic stress, overload it creates. Gold has actually Young’s modulus that 79 GPa, i beg your pardon is quite comparable to silver yet considerably lower than stole or iron.

Hardness that Gold

Hardness have the right to be defined as a material’s capacity to withstand surface abrasion. The family member hardness of products was traditionally evaluated using a perform of materials collection in together an order that any kind of material in the list will scrape any type of material listed below it. Thus, diamond, the hardest problem known, top the list with a hardness table of contents of 10, if talc is at the bottom through a hardness index of 1.

On this scale, gold has a value of 2.5 come 3, definition it is a soft metal. For more exact measurements, the Vickers hardness measure up is applied, which reflects that gold has a worth of around 25 Hv in the annealed condition.


Gold exhibits premium biocompatibility in ~ the person body (the vital reason for its use as a dentist alloy), and, consequently, there space several direct applications of gold as a medical material. Gold likewise has a high level of resistance to bacterial colonization and also hence that is the desired material because that implants that space at threat of infection, such together the within ear.

Oxidation States

Gold creates several amazing compounds based on the known oxidation states +1 and also +3. Gold-based chemicals consist of cyanides, halides, and also sulfides.

Table 2. summary of nature of gold

Atomic weight196.97
Atomic number79
Number of normally occuring isotopes1
Melting allude °C1064
Crystal structureFCC
Density gcm-319.3
Thermal conductivity W m-1 K-1310
Electrical resistivity micro-ohm m at 20 °C0.022
Young's modulus E GPa79
Hardness Hv25
Tensile stress and anxiety MPa124
0.2% proof tension MPa30
Poissons ratio0.42

Gold’s nature at the Nanoscale

It is an important to draw a distinction between the nature of gold in the bulk type and the properties it screens when existing in the kind of minute nanoparticles. In ~ the nanoscale, the nature of gold deserve to be noticeably different. These differences have been defined in a record from Professor Mike Cortie that the university of Technology, in Sydney.

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The exclusive properties of yellow at the nanoscale permit its use in one increasing variety of applications, including catalysts in chemistry processing and also pollution control, and also colloids because that biomedical marking.