2.2 mixture (ESAW)

We see mixtures all the time in our everyday lives. A stew, for example, is a mixture of different foods such together meat and also vegetables; sea water is a mixture of water, salt and also other substances, and also air is a mixture of gases such together carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen.

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A mixture is a mix of two or an ext substances, where these substances space not bonded (or joined) to every other and no chemistry reaction occurs in between the substances.

In a mixture, the building materials that comprise the mixture:

are not in a fixed ratio

Imagine, because that example, the you have actually \(\text250\) \(\textmL\) the water and also you add sand come the water. That doesn"t issue whether you add \(\text20\) \(\textg\), \(\text40\) \(\textg\), \(\text100\) \(\textg\) or any other fixed of sand to the water; it will certainly still be referred to as a mixture of sand and water.

keep their physical properties

In the example we provided of sand and also water, neither of these substances has readjusted in any method when they are combined together. The sand is quiet sand and also the water is tho water.

can be separated by mechanically means

To different something by “mechanical means”, way that there is no chemical process involved. In our sand and water example, the is feasible to different the mixture by simply pouring the water through a filter. Other physical is done to the mixture, quite than other chemical.

We can group mixtures additional by splitting them into those that are heterogeneous and also those that space homogeneous.

Heterogeneous mixture (ESAX)

A heterogeneous mixture go not have a definite composition. Grain in milk is an instance of a heterogeneous mixture. Soil is an additional example. Soil has pebbles, plant matter and also sand in it. Although you may include one problem to the other, they will continue to be separate in the mixture. Us say that these heterogeneous mixtures room non-uniform, in other words they space not exactly the exact same throughout.



Figure 2.2: A submicroscopic depiction of a heterogeneous mixture. The gray circles room one problem (e.g. One cereal) and also the white circles are an additional substance (e.g. One more cereal). The lift is the milk.

Heterogeneous mixture

A heterogeneous mixture is one that consists of 2 or an ext substances. It is non-uniform and the different materials of the mixture have the right to be seen.

Heterogeneous mixtures deserve to be further subdivided follow to whether it is two liquids mixed, a solid and a liquid or a liquid and also a gas or even a gas and a solid. These mixtures are given special names i beg your pardon you have the right to see in table below.

Phases of matter

Name that mixture




oil in water



muddy water



fizzy drinks




Homogeneous mixture (ESAY)

A homogeneous mixture has a identify composition, and specific properties. In a homogeneous mixture, the various parts cannot be seen. A systems of salt liquified in water is an example of a homogeneous mixture. When the salt dissolves, it diffusion evenly through the water so the all components of the solution space the same, and also you can no much longer see the salt as being separate from the water. Think additionally of coffee without milk. The air us breathe is one more example of a homogeneous mixture because it is consisted of of different gases which room in a consistent ratio, and also which can"t it is in visually identified from each various other (i.e. Friend can"t see the different components).



Salt dissolving in water


An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of 2 or more elements, at the very least one of i m sorry is a metal, wherein the result material has metallic properties. For example steel is one alloy made up mainly indigenous iron v a tiny amount of carbon (to do it harder), manganese (to make it strong) and also chromium (to prevent rusting).

Homogeneous mixture

A homogeneous mixture is one that is uniform, and also where the different components of the mixture can not be seen.

Worked example 1: Mixtures

For every of the adhering to mixtures state whether it is a homogeneous or a heterogeneous mixture:

sugar liquified in water

flour and also iron filings (small pieces of iron)

Decide whether or no you can see the components

We cannot watch the sugar in the water.

We room able to make out the piece of iron in the flour.

Decide even if it is or not the components are mixed uniformly

The two materials are mixed uniformly.

In this mixture there may be places where there are a lot of iron filings and places wherein there is more flour, so it is no uniformly mixed.

See more: What Is The Difference Between Goat Cheese And Feta Cheese And Goat Cheese?

Making mixtures

Make mixtures of sand and also water, potassium dichromate and also water, iodine and ethanol, iodine and also water. Share these together heterogeneous or homogeneous. Provide reasons for your choice.

Make your very own mixtures by choosing any type of two building material from







Try to make as countless different mixtures together possible. Classify every mixture and also give a reason for your choice.

number 2.3: Potassium dichromate (top) and iodine (bottom)