The Atlantic s is the world’s second-largest ocean, covering 20 per cent that the planet’s surface. It forms Canada’s east seaboard and also includes the entire shores of new Brunswick,Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island andNewfoundland and also Labrador. It likewise includes Quebec’s southeastern border, follow me the Gulf that St. Lawrence. The complete length that Canada’s Atlantic coast is approximately 42,000 km.

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The Atlantic s is the world second-largest ocean, extending 20 per cent of the planet’s surface. It develops Canada’s east seaboard and includes the entire shores of brand-new Brunswick,Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island andNewfoundland and Labrador. It likewise includes Quebec’s southeastern border, along the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The complete length of Canada’s Atlantic coast is approximately 42,000 km.
(courtesy CIA people Factbook/Wikimedia Commons)

Human Geography

The Mi"kmaq, Wolastoqiyik, Passamaquoddy, Innuand Inuit traditionally made their houses along the coastlines of the Atlantic Ocean and also they proceed to carry out so today. In addition, the Beothukonce live on the island that Newfoundland. For every these peoples, the waters and also coastline that the Atlantic Ocean detailed sustenance with hunting, fishing, and harvesting a selection of wild foods. Today, plenty of of these searches remain integral come Indigenousculture and also livelihood.

Canada’s Atlantic coastline was the first part of the country to it is in explored and colonized through Europeans. As with other components of Canada, modern settler culture in the Atlantic an ar is affected by people from almost everywhere the world. Certain social influences,namely Celtic, Acadian and also African-Canadian ones, are particularly prominent.

Approximately 3 million Canadians live in Canada’s Atlantic region. Significant ports encompass Halifax, Saint John,St. John’s and also Sept-Îsles. Halifax, with a depth of 18 m at low tide, is one of the world deepest naturalharbours.

Physical Geography

Geographers divide Canada’s Atlantic Ocean into three bioregions: the Newfoundland and also Labrador Shelves, the Scotian Shelf, and also the Estuary and also Gulf of St. Lawrence. The boundaries in between them overlap and also are not defined borders. The bioregions space designatedbased on differences in ocean depth and conditions. The Newfoundland and also Labrador Shelves, for example, encompass the Grand financial institutions shelf, situated southeast of Newfoundland. The covers one area that 93,200 km2 and is reasonably shallow. The GrandBanks are amongst the most fertile marine areas in the world.


The Atlantic Ocean’s coastal ecosystems encompass sandy beaches, rocky shores, mudflats, salt marshes, pebble beaches, fjords, bogs, islands and cliffs. Each of these ecosystems overlap. They were shaped by geology, the plants and also animals that live there,as well as by ocean winds, waves, salt and currents.

The Atlantic ocean watershed in Canada spans 1.6 million km2. Major watersheds within its boundaries include the an excellent Lakes–St. Lawrence river Basin, the Churchill Riverin Labrador and also the Saint john River in brand-new Brunswick.

In enhancement to Newfoundland and also Prince Edward Island, Canada’s Atlantic ocean is house to numerous, smaller islands including Cape Breton,Anticosti, Sable and Bell.Cape Breton Island"s Bras d"Or Lake system, a salt-water inland lake at the center of the island, is linked to the Atlantic through a number of channels.


Canada’s Atlantic s floor is rich with invertebrates, such together barnacles, sea stars, crabs, lobsters,sponges, scallops, clams and jellyfish.

Common fish populations historically consisted of northern ko redfish, and also herring. As result of chronic overfishing byCanada and also other nations, advertisement harvests the many varieties are no much longer sustainable.


Northern bottlenose whales swim in The Gully, turn off the shores the Nova Scotia. This population of north bottlenose whales, known as the Scotian shelf population, is endangered.

("Northern bottlenose whales spyhopping" by young name Moors is licensed underCC BY-NC-SA 4.0.)

Marine mammals incorporate harbour and grey seals, and several types of whale. This whales are either indigenousto or move through the region, and include the northern bottlenose, blue, pilot, beluga,fin, minke and also humpback.

Burrowing crustaceans are discovered in the low-lying beaches, salt marshes and also tidal flats that the upper Bay that Fundy and the southerly Gulf the St. Lawrence.

Estuaries, where fresh river waters mix with saline sea water, offer as nursery areas for youth fish and the larvae that molluscs, crustaceans and other invertebrates.

Economy and Industry

The Atlantic s is an important to Canada"s economy. Over 55,000 work are associated with the ocean, in industries such together fishing, aquaculture, tourism and also oil and gas. Along Canada’s Atlantic coast, for example, the economic climates of about 1,000 communitiesdepend top top the fisheries, or ~ above related sectors such as fish handling plants and also shipbuilding. In the Atlantic region, Nova Scotia is the leading producer that fish, followedby Newfoundland and also Labrador. In 2020, two first Nation neighborhoods in Nova Scotia, Membertou and also Miawpukek an initial Nations, to buy Clearwater Seafoods, in partnershipwith BC’s Premium Brands. The deal is taken into consideration to it is in the largest investment in the seafood sector by any type of Indigenous group in Canada.

Did you know?The United nations Convention top top the legislation of the Sea (UNCLOS) considers the continent shelf that borders a country’s shore to be a continuation of the country’s floor territory. Any type of country bordering an s is allowedexclusive financial rights end a zone expanding 200 nautical mile (about 370 km) indigenous its shore.

Canada’s Atlantic offshore oil and gas industry started in 1959 once Mobil started exploration turn off Sable Island. Today, there room six creating sites off the coastline of Newfoundland and also Labradorand Nova Scotia. Exploration for other sites continues. The offshore industry produces more than 233,000 barrels of oil every day, representing 5 percent the Canada’s total crudeoil production.

Environmental Challenges

Like every oceans, Canada’s Atlantic was when thought come have endless resources. Today, however, the health of its unique ecosystems is threatened by a variety of human-made pressures. For example, pollutants from human being activity, such together pesticides, herbicides,detergents and also sewage, have gathered in the ocean. These pollutants are consumed by small marine animals and introduced into the food chain. In addition, in 2018 researchers evidenced microplastics contamination in Canada’s Atlantic Ocean.

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Climate adjust is additionally affecting the world oceans, including the Atlantic. The results of climate adjust on the Atlantic Ocean include warming waters and rising sea levels.These changes influence both human and marine life. For example, because of warmer waters, the migration routes of north cod and other fish have actually shifted furthermore north. As a result, fewerand smaller fish are being caught. Such shifts in migratory trends not only influence the world who rely on them for food, but likewise the framework and duty of the whole marine ecosystem.