Why is gift scalded by boiling heavy steam so lot worse for you 보다 being scalded or charred by a fluid or a solid at the same temperature?

The certain heat capacity of a material measures exactly how much power is required to adjust the temperature of the material. The specific heat capacity of water is 4180 joules per kilogram every kelvin, an interpretation that it requires 4180 joules of power to advanced the temperature that one kilogram the water by one kelvin.

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The latent warmth of a product is the power required to readjust the state the a material without an altering the material’s temperature. Over there are because of this two implicitly heats: the latent warm of blend is the energy required to revolve a solid come a liquid or evil versa, and also the latent warm of vaporisation is the energy required to revolve a fluid to a gas or angry versa. Because that water the latent warm of combination is 334 000 joules per kilogram and also the latent warm of vaporisation is 2 260 000 J/kg.

If a one gram drop of cook water (at 100°C) falls top top skin at a temperature the 35°C climate the temperature that the water easily falls by 65°C. To drop the temperature the one gram of water by 65°C needs a readjust in power of 272 joules. Due to the fact that heat always flows from a hotter body to a cooler one* this warmth flows into the skin, damaging skin cells as it does.

The situation is different if one gram of boiling heavy steam (still at 100°C) access time the skin. An initial it has actually to adjust state right into water, and then cool down simply as above. In the process of changing state indigenous a gas in ~ 100°C come water at 100°C that releases a substantial amount the energy: second 2260 joules when compared with the 272 joules released as it cools. If us assume that the severity that the scald is proportional to the power released (which is a very reasonable assumption) climate a scald v boiling vapor does 931% the the damages that a scald v boiling water does.

The graph above shows exactly how the temperature the a 1kg block of ice cream at −100°C changes as power is gave to it. The horizontal sections take place when energy is being took in but the temperature of the substance is no changing; this is since the energy is being supplied to weaken bonds between molecules as the state changes first from solid to liquid and then from liquid to gas. The much longer horizontal ar in the liquid-gas state change indicates that more energy is forced to turn water into steam than is forced to rotate ice right into water. This is reflective that the loved one strengths the the intermolecular bonds in solids, liquids and gases. The differing gradients the the sloped sections shows the fact that the details heat volume of water varies through state.†

* an ext accurately, the net flow of heat is always from a hotter human body to a cooler one.

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† for the services of simplicity, the certain heat volume of water in each state has been assumed not to vary.