The mind and spinal cord kind the central nervous device (CNS), and they room surrounded and protected by the bones of the skull and the vertebral pillar (back bone). In between the brain and skull room three other protective coverings called the meninges, which space special membranes that totally surround the mind and spinal cord.

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Within the mind are the ventricles. Ventricles can be believed of as chambers filled through fluid. There are four ventricles in all: 2 lateral ventricles, the 3rd ventricle, and the 4th ventricle. The ventricles are connected by narrow passageways.


Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flows v the 4 ventricles and then flows in between the meninges in one area referred to as the subarachnoid space. CSF cushions the brain and spinal cord versus forceful blows, distributes necessary substances, and carries far waste products.

Under normal conditions, a fragile balance exists in between the amount of CSF produced and also the rate at which that is absorbed. Our bodies produce roughly one pint the CSF every day, repetitively replacing it together it is absorbed.

Hydrocephalus develops when this balance is altered and is characterized by an abnormal buildup of CSF within the ventricles. This buildup of CSF boosts the pressure in the mind causing the ventricles to enlarge and the mind to it is in pressed against the skull.

CSF is primarily created within the lateral the third ventricles by delicate tufts of committed tissue called the choroid plexus. In part cases, hydrocephalus can develop when the choroid plexus to produce too lot CSF. This can occur when there is a tumor on the choroid plexus, for example.

CSF flows from the lateral ventricles through two narrow passageways right into the third ventricle. From the 3rd ventricle, it operation down another long passageway known as the aqueduct of Sylvius into the fourth ventricle. From the fourth ventricle, the passes through three small openings dubbed foramina and into the subarachnoid an are surrounding the brain and the spinal cord. If the circulation of CSF at any of this points is blocked, hydrocephalus have the right to develop. This is frequently referred to as non-communicating hydrocephalus.

It has traditionally been believed that CSF is absorbed through tiny, dedicated cell clusters referred to as arachnoid villi close to the top and also midline that the brain. The CSF climate passes v the arachnoid villi right into the remarkable sagittal sinus, a large vein, and is absorbed into the bloodstream. When in the bloodstream, it is lugged away and filtered by the kidneys and also liver in the same way as other bodily fluids. However, more recent research study has shown that CSF is also took in through various other pathways together well. When CSF absorption is clogged or reduced, hydrocephalus have the right to develop. This is often referred to as communicating hydrocephalus since there is no noticeable blockage in ~ the ventricular system.

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