Learning Objectives

recognize the major components that a research record written utilizing American psychological Association (APA) style. Apply general APA style and formatting conventions in a research paper.

In this chapter, you will certainly learn how to usage APA styleThe documentation and also formatting style complied with by the American emotional Association, or APA. This layout is commonly used in the sciences, including social sciences., the documentation and formatting style complied with by the American emotional Association, as well as MLA styleModern Language combination style, or MLA, is regularly used in the for free arts and humanities. It offers a uniform frame for the manuscript and also parenthetical citations, or in-text citations. It also provides the structure for the functions cited area for listing references at the finish of the essay., native the modern-day Language Association. There are a couple of major formatting formats used in scholastic texts, including AMA, Chicago, and Turabian:

AMA (American medical Association) for medicine, health, and also biological sciences APA (American psychological Association) because that education, psychology, and the social sciences Chicago—a typical style used in everyday publications prefer magazines, newspapers, and also books MLA (Modern Language Association) because that English, literature, arts, and also humanities Turabian—another common style designed for its global application throughout all subjects and disciplines

While all the formatting and also citation formats have their very own use and applications, in this chapter we focus our fist on the two layouts you are most likely to usage in your academic studies: APA and MLA.

You are watching: The mla documentation style requires that you

If you find that the rule of proper source documentation are difficult to keep straight, you room not alone. Composing a great research document is, in and also of itself, a major intellectual challenge. Having actually to follow detailed citation and formatting guidelines also may it seems ~ like simply one more task to include to an already-too-long list of requirements.

Following these guidelines, however, offer several crucial purposes. First, it signal to her readers that your document should it is in taken seriously together a student’s donation to a given scholastic or expert field; the is the literary identical of wearing a tailored suit to a job interview. Second, it reflects that friend respect various other people’s work enough to provide them proper credit because that it. Finally, it help your leader find additional materials if the or she wishes to learn much more about her topic.

Furthermore, producing a letter-perfect APA-style record need no be burdensome. Yes, the requires careful attention to detail. However, you have the right to simplify the process if you keep these broad guidelines in mind:

Get it right the very first time. apply APA guidelines as you write, therefore you will not have much to correct throughout the modifying stage. Again, putting in a tiny extra time early can save time later.

General Formatting Guidelines

This thing provides detailed guidelines for using the citation and formatting conventions occurred by the American mental Association, or APA. Authors in self-controls as diverse as astrophysics, biology, psychology, and education monitor APA style. The significant components of a record written in APA layout are detailed in the adhering to box.

These space the major components of an APA-style paper:

Title web page Abstract

Body, which consists of the following:

Headings and, if necessary, subheadings to organize the contents In-text citations of study sources References web page

All these components must be conserved in one document, no as separate documents.

Title Page

The title page of your record includes the following information:

title of the document Author’s name Name the the institution with i beg your pardon the author is affiliated Header at the optimal of the page with the record title (in resources letters) and the web page number (If the title is lengthy, you may use a shortened type of the in the header.)

List the first three aspects in the order provided in the vault list, centered around one 3rd of the means down native the peak of the page. Usage the headers and footers device of your word-processing program to add the header, v the title message at the left and the page number in the upper-right corner. Your title page must look prefer the adhering to example.



The following page of your file provides an abstractA concise (one hundreds to one hundred fifty words) review of study findings that appears at the start of one APA-style paper., or brief an introduction of your findings. An summary does not need to be provided in every paper, however an abstract have to be provided in records that encompass a hypothesis. A great abstract is concise—about one hundreds to one hundreds fifty words—and is written in one objective, impersonal style. Your composing voice will not be as apparent here together in the body of her paper. When writing the abstract, take a just-the-facts approach, and also summarize your study question and your result in a few sentences.

In thing 12 \"Writing a study Paper\", you check out a document written through a student named Jorge, who researched the performance of low-carbohydrate diets. Read Jorge’s abstract. Note how it sums increase the significant ideas in his document without walking into too much detail.


Use these basic guidelines to style the paper:

set the top, bottom, and side spare part of your document at 1 inch. Usage double-spaced text throughout your paper. Usage a standard font, such together Times new Roman or Arial, in a legible size (10- come 12-point). Use continuous pagination transparent the paper, including the location page and the referrals section. Page numbers show up flush right within her header. Ar headings and also subsection headings in ~ the body of your file use different types of formatting depending upon the level of details you room presenting. Added details indigenous Jorge’s paper are provided.



APA format uses ar headingsHeadings supplied to organize information within one APA-style paper. APA format provides formatting accuse for 5 levels the section and also subsection headings; however, most college research records require just one or two heading levels. Come organize information, making it simple for the leader to follow the writer’s train the thought and to know instantly what major topics are covered. Depending upon the length and also complexity the the paper, its major sections may also be separated into subsections, sub-subsections, and also so on. These smaller sections, in turn, use various heading styles to indicate different levels that information. In essence, you space using headings to develop a power structure of information.

The adhering to heading layouts used in APA formatting are provided in stimulate of greatest to the very least importance:

ar headings use centered, boldface type. Headings use title case, with essential words in the heading capitalized. Subsection headings usage left-aligned, boldface type. Headings use title case. The 3rd level supplies left-aligned, indented, boldface type. Headings usage a resources letter just for the very first word, and also they end in a period. The fourth level adheres to the same layout used for the vault level, however the headings space boldfaced and also italicized. The fifth level follows the same style used because that the ahead level, yet the headings room italicized and also not boldfaced.

Visually, the power structure of details is arranged as suggested in Table 13.1 \"Section Headings\".

Table 13.1 ar Headings

Level of info Text example
Level 1 Heart Disease
Level 2 Lifestyle components That alleviate Heart condition Risk
Level 3 Exercising regularly.
Level 4 Aerobic exercise.
Level 5 Country heat dancing.

A college research document may not usage all the heading levels shown in Table 13.1 \"Section Headings\", yet you are likely to encounter them in scholastic journal write-ups that usage APA style. For a short paper, friend may find that level 1 headings suffice. Longer or more complicated papers may need level 2 headings or various other lower-level headings come organize information clearly. Usage your synopsis to craft your major section headings and also determine whether any subtopics are considerable enough to require extr levels that headings.

Exercise 3

Working v the paper you occurred in keep in mind 13.11 \"Exercise 2\", begin setting up the heading structure of the final draft of your research record according come APA guidelines. Incorporate your title and at least two come three significant section headings, and follow the formatting guidelines provided above. If your significant sections need to be broken into subsections, include those headings as well. Use your overview to aid you.

Because Jorge supplied only level 1 headings, his practice 3 would look choose the following:

Level of information Text example
Level 1 Purported services of Low-Carbohydrate Diets
Level 1 Research on Low-Carbohydrate Diets and Weight Loss
Level 1 Other Long-Term health Outcomes
Level 1 Conclusion

In-Text Citations

Throughout the human body of her paper, encompass a citation whenever you quote or paraphrase material from your research study sources. As you learned in thing 11 \"Writing indigenous Research: What will certainly I Learn?\", the objective of citations is twofold: to give credit to rather for your ideas and also to enable your leader to monitor up and also learn an ext about the topic if desired. Your in-text citations provide straightforward information about your source; each resource you cite will have a much longer entry in the recommendations section the provides much more detailed information.

In-text citations must administer the name of the author or authors and the year the resource was published. (When a given resource does no list an individual author, you may carry out the resource title or the surname of the company that released the product instead.) When straight quoting a source, that is also required that you include the page number whereby the quote shows up in her citation.

This details may be contained within the sentence or in a parenthetical reference at the finish of the sentence, as in these examples.

Epstein (2010) points the end that “junk food can not be taken into consideration addictive in the same means that we think of psychosis drugs together addictive” (p. 137).

Here, the writer name the source author when introducing the quote and provides the publication date in parentheses after the author’s name. The page number appears in parentheses after the close up door quotation marks and before the period that end the sentence.

Addiction researchers caution the “junk food cannot be thought about addictive in the same means that we think of psychosis drugs together addictive” (Epstein, 2010, p. 137).

Here, the writer offers a parenthetical quote at the finish of the sentence that contains the author’s name, the year the publication, and the page number be separated by commas. Again, the parenthetical citation is put after the close up door quotation marks and before the period at the finish of the sentence.

As noted in the publication Junk Food, Junk Science (Epstein, 2010, p. 137), “junk food cannot be taken into consideration addictive in the same method that we think of psychosis drugs as addictive.”

Here, the writer made decision to cite the resource title in the sentence (an optional item of info to include) and also followed the title v a parenthetical citation. Note that the parenthetical citation is placed before the comma the signals the end of the introductory phrase.

David Epstein’s publication Junk Food, Junk Science (2010) pointed out that “junk food can not be taken into consideration addictive in the same means that we think of psychoactive drugs together addictive” (p. 137).

Another sport is to introduce the author and the resource title in your sentence and include the publishing date and also page number in parentheses within the sentence or at the finish of the sentence. As long as friend have had the vital information, girlfriend can choose the choice that works finest for that certain sentence and also source.

Citing a book with a single author is usually a straightforward task. That course, your research might require the you mention many other species of sources, such as publications or short articles with an ext than one author or resources with no individual writer listed. You may likewise need to mention sources accessible in both print and also online and also nonprint sources, such as websites and personal interviews. Thing 13 \"APA and also MLA Documentation and Formatting\", ar 13.2 \"Citing and also Referencing Techniques\" and Section 13.3 \"Creating a recommendations Section\" administer extensive guidelines because that citing a range of source types.

Writing at Work

APA is simply one of several different styles v its own guidelines for documentation, formatting, and language usage. Depending on your field of interest, you might be exposed to added styles, such together the following:

MLA style. determined by the modern-day Languages Association and also used for documents in literature, languages, and other disciplines in the humanities. Chicago style. Outlined in the Chicago manual of Style and also sometimes supplied for documents in the humanities and the sciences; numerous professional establishments use this format for publication as well. Associated push (AP) style. used by professional journalists.

References List

The quick citations had in the human body of your document correspond come the an ext detailed citations noted at the finish of the paper in the references section. In-text citations provide basic information—the author’s name, the publication date, and the page number if necessary—while the references section provides more extensive bibliographical information. Again, this information allows your reader to follow up top top the resources you cited and do additional reading about the subject if desired.

The certain format that entries in the perform of recommendations varies slightly for different resource types, but the entries generally encompass the following information:

The name(s) the the author(s) or school that wrote the resource The year of publication and, wherein applicable, the exact day of publishing The full title of the resource For books, the city of publication For write-ups or essays, the surname of the magazine or book in which the write-up or essay appears For magazine and also journal articles, the volume number, worry number, and pages whereby the article shows up For resources on the web, the URL wherein the source is situated

The references web page is double spaced and also lists entries in alphabetical order by the author’s critical name. If an entry proceeds for more than one line, the second line and each subsequent line are indented 5 spaces. Review the complying with example. (Chapter 13 \"APA and MLA Documentation and also Formatting\", section 13.3 \"Creating a references Section\" provides extensive guidelines for formatting reference entries because that different types of sources.)


Key Takeaways

Following ideal citation and formatting indict helps authors ensure the their work-related will it is in taken seriously, give appropriate credit to various other authors for their work, and provide an useful information to readers. Functioning ahead and taking care to cite sources effectively the an initial time are means writers have the right to save time during the modifying stage of creating a research paper. APA records usually include an abstract that concisely summarizes the paper. APA files use a certain headings structure to carry out a clear power structure of information. In APA papers, in-text citations usually incorporate the name(s) the the author(s) and also the year the publication. In-text citations exchange mail to entries in the references section, which carry out detailed bibliographical information about a source.

Formatting brief Quotations

For brief quotations—fewer than forty words—use quotation clues to indicate where the quoted product begins and also ends, and also cite the surname of the author(s), the year that publication, and the web page number wherein the quotation shows up in her source. Remember to include commas to separate facets within the parenthetical citation. Also, avoid redundancy. If you name the author(s) in your sentence, perform not repeat the name(s) in your parenthetical citation. Review complying with the examples of different ways to cite direct quotations.

Chang (2008) emphasized the “engaging in weight-bearing practice consistently is one of the single best points women can do come maintain good health” (p. 49).

The author’s name deserve to be contained in the human body of the sentence or in the parenthetical citation. Note that once a parenthetical citation shows up at the finish of the sentence, it come after the closing quotation marks and also before the period. The facets within parentheses room separated through commas.

Weight Training because that Women (Chang, 2008) claimed that “engaging in weight-bearing practice consistently is among the solitary best things women can do to maintain great health” (p. 49).

Weight Training for Women asserted that “engaging in weight-bearing exercise consistently is among the solitary best points women have the right to do come maintain great health” (Chang, 2008, p. 49).

In Chang’s 2008 text Weight Training because that Women, she asserts, “Engaging in weight-bearing exercise is one of the single best things women have the right to do to maintain good health” (p. 49).

The author’s name, the date, and also the title may show up in the human body of the text. Include the web page number in the parenthetical citation. Also, notice the use of the verb asserts to introduce the straight quotation.

“Engaging in weight-bearing exercise,” Chang asserts, “is one of the solitary best points women can do come maintain good health” (2008, p. 49).

You may start a sentence with the direct quotation and include the author’s name and also a strong verb prior to continuing the quotation.

Formatting Paraphrased and Summarized Material

When girlfriend paraphrase or summarize ideas from a source, you monitor the same guidelines formerly provided, other than that you room not forced to provide the web page number whereby the principles are located. If you room summing up the main findings of a research study article, simply providing the author’s name and also publication year may suffice, but if you room paraphrasing a an ext specific idea, take into consideration including the web page number.

Read the complying with examples.

Here, the writer is summarizing a significant idea the recurs transparent the source material. No web page reference is needed.

Chang (2008) found that weight-bearing practice could aid women keep or even increase bone density through center age and beyond, reducing the likelihood that they will construct osteoporosis in later on life (p. 86).

Although the writer is not directly quoting the source, this i paraphrases a particular detail, therefore the writer decided to incorporate the page number whereby the info is located.


Although APA format guidelines carry out not call for writers to provide page numbers for product that is not directly quoted, her instructor might wish you to execute so as soon as possible.

Check v your instructor about his or she preferences.

Formatting much longer Quotations

When friend quote a longer passage native a source—forty indigenous or more—use a various format to set off the quoted material. Rather of utilizing quotation marks, develop a block quotationA lengthy quotation (forty words or more) that supplies indentation, fairly than quotation marks, to show that the product is quoted. Block quotations are indented five spaces from the left margin. The web page reference is contained in parentheses ~ the end punctuation for the quote. By starting the quotation top top a brand-new line and also indented 5 spaces indigenous the margin. Note that in this case, the parenthetical citation come after the duration that ends the sentence. Here is one example:

In current years, many writers within the fitness industry have emphasized the means in which ladies can advantage from weight-bearing exercise, such together weightlifting, karate, dancing, stairway climbing, hiking, and jogging. Chang (2008) found that engaging in weight-bearing exercise regularly substantially reduces women’s danger of arising osteoporosis. Additionally, these exercises aid women keep muscle mass and overall strength, and also many usual forms of weight-bearing exercise, such together brisk go or stair climbing, also carry out noticeable cardiovascular benefits. (p. 93)

Exercise 1

Review the places in your record where girlfriend cited, quoted, and also paraphrased product from a source with a single author. Edit your citations come ensure that

every citation has the author’s name, the day of publication, and, wherein appropriate, a page reference; parenthetical citations are correctly formatted; longer quotations usage the block-quotation format.

If you room quoting a passage that proceeds into a 2nd paragraph, indent five spaces again in the very first line the the 2nd paragraph. Below is one example:

In recent years, plenty of writers within the fitness industry have emphasized the means in which women can benefit from weight-bearing exercise, such as weightlifting, karate, dancing, stair climbing, hiking, and jogging. Chang (2008) found that engaging in weight-bearing practice regularly significantly reduces women’s hazard of occurring osteoporosis. Additionally, this exercises help women preserve muscle mass and overall strength, and also many usual forms the weight-bearing exercise, such as brisk go or stairway climbing, also carry out noticeable cardiovascular benefits.

It is crucial to note that swim cannot be considered a weight-bearing exercise, since the water supports and cushions the swimmer. That doesn’t typical swimming isn’t good exercise, however it have to be considered one component of an combined fitness program. (p. 93)


Be wary that quoting from sources at length. Remember, your concepts should drive the paper, and also quotations should be used to support and enhance your points. Make sure any lengthy quotations that you include serve a clean purpose. Generally, no more than 10–15 percent the a record should consist of quoted material.

Introducing Cited product Effectively

Including one introductory expression in your text, such as “Jackson wrote” or “Copeland found,” often helps friend integrate source material smoothly. This citation an approach also helps convey that you are actively engaged with your resource material. Unfortunately, during the procedure of creating your study paper, it is simple to autumn into a rut and also use the same couple of dull verb repeatedly, such together “Jones said,” “Smith stated,” and also so on.

Punch increase your writing by using strong verbs that aid your leader understand exactly how the source material gift ideas. There is a human being of difference in between an author who “suggests” and also one that “claims,” one that “questions” and one that “criticizes.” You do not have to consult her thesaurus every time you point out a source, yet do think about which verbs will certainly accurately represent the ideas and also make her writing an ext engaging. The following chart shows some possibilities.

strong Verbs for presenting Cited product
ask suggest question
explain assert claim
recommend compare contrast
propose hypothesize believe
insist argue find
determine measure assess
evaluate conclude study
warn point out sum up

Exercise 2

Review the citations in your file once again. This time, look for locations where girlfriend introduced source material utilizing a signal phrase in your sentence.

highlight the verbs provided in your signal phrases, and also make note of any type of that it seems to be ~ to be overused transparent the paper. Identify at the very least three areas where a more powerful verb might be used. Make the edits to her draft.

Writing in ~ Work

It is crucial to accurately represent a colleague’s ideas or communications in the workplace. Once writing skilled or academic papers, be mindful of exactly how the indigenous you use to explain someone’s ton or concepts carry specific connotations. Execute not say a source argues a details point unless an argument is, in fact, presented. Usage lively language, however avoid language the is emotionally charged. Doing so will certainly ensure you have represented her colleague’s words in one authentic and accurate way.

Two or more Works by the same Author

At times, your study may incorporate multiple works by the same author. If the functions were published in various years, a typical in-text citation will serve to differentiate them. If you are citing multiple works by the same author published in the same year, include a lowercase letter immediately after the year. Location the sources in the bespeak they show up in your recommendations section. The source listed an initial includes one a after ~ the year, the source detailed second contains a b, and so on.

Rodriguez (2009a) criticize the nutrition-supplement industry for make unsubstantiated and sometimes misleading claims about the services of taking supplements. Additionally, he warned that consumers commonly do not realize the potential harmful effects of some well-known supplements (Rodriguez, 2009b).


If you have actually not yet created your recommendations section, you might not be certain which source will appear first. Watch Chapter 13 \"APA and MLA Documentation and also Formatting\", ar 13.3 \"Creating a referrals Section\" for guidelines—or entrust each resource a momentary code and highlight the in-text citations so you remember to double-check them later on.

Works through Authors through the very same Last Name

If you room citing functions by different authors through the exact same last name, encompass each author’s initials in her citation, whether you cite them in the message or in parentheses. Execute so also if the publication years are different.

J. S. Williams (2007) trust nutritional supplements can be a useful component of some diet and fitness regimens. C. D. Williams (2008), however, believes these supplements are overrated.

According to two leading researchers, the rate of childhood excessive weight exceeds the price of adult obesity (K. Connelley, 2010; O. Connelley, 2010).

Studies native both A. Light (2007) and also C. A. Wright (2008) confirm the benefits of diet and exercise on load loss.

A work-related by two Authors

When 2 authors are provided for a provided work, incorporate both authors’ names each time you cite the work. If you room citing their names in parentheses, use an ampersand (&) in between them. (Use words and, however, if the names appear in your sentence.)

As Garrison and also Gould (2010) sharp out, “It is never too so late to quit smoking. The health risks linked with this habit begin to decrease soon after a smoker quits” (p. 101).

As doctors proceed to suggest out, “It is never ever too late to quit smoking. The health risks associated with this habit begin to decrease quickly after a smoker quits” (Garrison & Gould, 2010, p. 101).

A occupational by 3 to five Authors

If the work you space citing has three to five authors, list all the authors’ names the very first time you cite the source. In subsequent citations, usage the very first author’s name complied with by the abbreviation et al.An abbreviation for the Latin expression et alia, an interpretation “and others.” This abbreviation frequently appears in citations because that works through multiple authors. (Et al. is quick for et alia, the Latin phrase for “and others.”)

One survey, conducted among 350 smokers aged 18 to 30, included a in-depth questionnaire around participants’ motivations for smoking cigarettes (Henderson, Davidian, & Degler, 2010).

Note that these instances follow the very same ampersand conventions as resources with two authors. Again, use the ampersand only once listing authors’ surname in parentheses.

As Henderson et al. (2010) found, some young people, specifically young women, use smoking cigarettes as a means of appetite suppression.

Disturbingly, part young women use smoking cigarettes as a way of appetite suppression (Henderson et al., 2010).

Note just how the expression et al. is punctuated. No duration comes after et, but al. gets a duration because the is one abbreviation because that a longer Latin word. In parenthetical references, include a comma after et al. yet not before. Remember this rule by mentally translating the citation to English: “Henderson and also others, 2010.”

A work-related by 6 or much more Authors

If the work-related you are citing has actually six or an ext authors, list only the very first author’s name, followed by et al., in your in-text citations. The other authors’ names will be provided in your referrals section.

Researchers have discovered that outreach job-related with young world has assisted reduce tobacco use in some areas (Costello et al., 2007).

A job-related Authored by one Organization

When citing a job-related that has no individual author(s) however is published by one organization, use the organization’s name in location of the author’s name. Lengthy organization names with renowned abbreviations can be abbreviated. In your very first citation, usage the full name, adhered to by the abbreviation in square brackets. Subsequent citations might use the abbreviation only.

It is feasible for a patience to have a tiny stroke without even realizing it (American love Association , 2010).

Another cause for worry is that also if patients realize that they have had actually a stroke and also need clinical attention, they might not understand which nearby facilities are ideal equipped come treat lock (AHA, 2010).

Exercise 3

review the places in your document where girlfriend cited material from a resource with multiple writer or with an organization as the author. Edit your citations to ensure the each citation complies with APA guidelines for the consists of the authors’ names, the usage of ampersands and also et al., the date of publication, and, whereby appropriate, a page reference. Mark any additional citations in ~ your file that you are not sure just how to format based on the guidelines listed so far. You will revisit this citations after reading the next couple of sections.

A occupational with No listed Author

If no writer is listed and the source cannot it is in attributed to an organization, use the title in location of the author’s name. You might use the full title in her sentence or use the first couple of words—enough come convey the an essential ideas—in a parenthetical reference. Follow standard conventions for using italics or quote marks v titles:

usage italics for titles of books or reports. Usage quotation marks because that titles of short articles or chapters.

“Living v Diabetes: regulating Your Health” (2009) recommends continuous exercise for patients with diabetes.

Rosenhan (1973) had actually mentally healthy study participants case to be enduring hallucinations so they would be admitted to psychiatric hospitals.

A work-related Cited within an additional Work

To mention a source that is referred to within another secondary source, surname the first source in your sentence. Then, in parentheses, use the expression as quote in and also the name of the 2nd source author.

Rosenhan’s study “On being Sane in Insane Places” (as cited in Spitzer, 1975) discovered that psychiatrists diagnosed schizophrenia in human being who claimed to be experiencing hallucinations and also sought treatment—even though this patients were, in fact, imposters.

Two or much more Works quote in One Reference

At times, you might provide more than one citation in a parenthetical reference, together as once you are stating related functions or research studies with comparable results. Perform the citations in the exact same order they show up in your referrals section, and separate the citations through a semicolon.

Some researcher have found serious flaws in the method Rosenhan’s study was performed (Dawes, 2001; Spitzer, 1975).

Both the these researchers authored functions that support the suggest being do in this sentence, so it provides sense to encompass both in the very same citation.

A famous Text released in many Editions

In some cases, you might need to cite really well-known work-related that has actually been continuously republished or translated. Countless works of literature and sacred texts, and some classic nonfiction texts, fall into this category. For these works, the original date of publication may be unavailable. If so, encompass the year of publication or translation for her edition. Refer to certain parts or chapters if you need to cite a details section. Discuss with your instructor even if it is he or she would prefer you to point out page number in this certain instance.

In New introduce Lectures top top Psycho-Analysis, Freud explains that the “manifest content” the a dream—what literally bring away place—is different from that is “latent content,” or hidden meaning (trans. 1965, lecture XXIX).

Here, the student is citing a classic work of psychology, originally written in German and later analyzed to English. Due to the fact that the book is a collection of Freud’s lectures, the student cites the class number quite than a web page number.

An Introduction, Foreword, Preface, or Afterword

To mention an introduction, foreword, preface, or afterword, mention the writer of the material and also the year, adhering to the same format used for other print materials.

Electronic Sources

Whenever possible, point out electronic sources as you would publish sources, using the author, the date, and also where appropriate, a page number. For some species of digital sources—for instance, plenty of online articles—this details is quickly available. Other times, however, girlfriend will should vary the format to reflect the distinctions in online media.

Online sources without page Numbers

If an online source has no page numbers yet you want to describe a specific portion of the source, shot to locate other details you can use to direct your leader to the information cited. Some websites number paragraphs within published articles; if so, incorporate the paragraph number in your citation. Precede the i number through the abbreviation for words paragraph and also the variety of the i (e.g., para. 4).

As researchers have explained, “Incorporating new fruits and also vegetables right into one’s diet can be a an obstacle for inhabitants of locations where there are couple of or no easily easily accessible supermarkets” (Smith & Jones, 2006, para. 4).

Even if a resource does not have actually numbered paragraphs, that is most likely to have actually headings that organize the content. In her citation, name the section where her cited info appears, followed by a i number.

The American Lung combination (2010) noted, “After smoking, radon exposure is the 2nd most common cause of lung cancer” (What reasons Lung Cancer? section, para. 2).

This college student cited the suitable section heading in ~ the website and also then counted to uncover the specific paragraph wherein the cited details was located.

If one online resource has no provided author and also no date, use the resource title and the abbreviation n.d. in her parenthetical reference.

It has been said that electromagnetic radiation indigenous cellular telephones might pose a risk for developing particular cancers (“Cell Phones and Cancer,” n.d.).

Writing in ~ Work

At work, you might sometimes share information resources with your colleagues by photocopying an interesting article or forwarding the URL that a beneficial website. Her goal in these situations and in formal study citations is the same. The goal is to carry out enough info to assist your skilled peers locate and follow increase on potentially helpful information. Provide as much specific information as possible to attain that goal, and also consult v your professor regarding what particular style he or she might prefer.

Exercise 4

Revisit the difficulty citations you established in keep in mind 13.55 \"Exercise 3\"—for instance, resources with no noted author or other oddities. Review the guidelines noted in this section and also edit your citations because that these kinds of sources according to APA guidelines.

Key Takeaways

In APA papers, in-text citations encompass the surname of the author(s) and the year of publishing whenever possible. Web page numbers are always included once citing quotations. It is optional to incorporate page numbers when citing character material; however, this need to be done as soon as citing a specific portion of a work. Once citing virtual sources, carry out the same information used for publish sources if that is available. Once a source does not carry out information the usually appears in a citation, in-text citations should carry out readers with different information the would help them situate the source material. This may include the location of the source, section headings and paragraph numbers for websites, and so forth. As soon as writing a paper, comment on with your professor what particular standards he or she would prefer you to follow.

Formatting reference Entries

Reference entries should include the following information:

The surname of the author(s) The year of publishing and, where applicable, the exact date of publication The complete title the the resource For books, the city of publishing For articles or essays, the name of the periodical or publication in i beg your pardon the post or essay appears For magazine and also journal articles, the volume number, worry number, and pages where the article shows up For resources on the web, the URL where the resource is located

See the following examples for exactly how to format a book or journal write-up with a single author.

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Formatting the references Section: APA general Guidelines

encompass the heading References, focused at the height of the page. The heading have to not it is in boldfaced, italicized, or underlined. Usage double-spaced type throughout the references section, as in the body of her paper. Usage hanging indentation for each entry. The an initial line need to be flush with the left margin, while any lines the follow have to be indented 5 spaces. Note that hanging indentation is the opposite of normal indenting rules for paragraphs. List entries in alphabetical order by the author’s critical name. For a work-related with multiple authors, use the last name of the first author listed. List authors’ names making use of this format: Smith, J. C. Because that a job-related with no separation, personal, instance author(s), use the name of the company that published the work-related or, if this is unavailable, the location of the work-related in location of the author’s name.

For works v multiple authors, follow these guidelines:

because that works through up to seven authors, list the last name and also initials for each author. For functions with much more than 7 authors, perform the an initial six names, adhered to by ellipses, and also then the name of the last author listed. Usage an ampersand prior to the name of the last author listed. usage title situation for journal titles. Capitalize all necessary words in the title.

Use sentence case for all other titles—books, articles, web pages, and also other source titles. Capitalize the first word that the title. Do not capitalize any type of other native in the title other than for the following:

appropriate nouns first word the a subtitle first word ~ a colon or dash usage italics because that book and journal titles. Do not use italics, underlining, or quotation marks for titles of shorter works, such as articles.

Exercise 1

Set up the very first page that your recommendations section and begin including entries, following the APA formatting guidelines detailed in this section.

If there room any basic entries the you deserve to format completely using the general guidelines, do so in ~ this time. For entries you room unsure of how to format, kind in as much details as girlfriend can, and highlight the entries therefore you have the right to return to them later.