The arid deserts and high plateaus that the American Southwest offered rise to three unique prehistoric cultures, ancestral Pueblo (Anasazi), Mogollon and Hohokam. All days are BCE (Before existing Era, or BC) and CE (Current Era, or AD).

Hohokam

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Mesa Grande

Along the rivers that the Arizona desert a distinct culture, the Hohokam, arose and flourished. Beginning as at an early stage as 1200 BCE, your predecessors, recognized as the "Early agricultural Period" people, began to construct big irrigation equipment along the Santa Cruz River.

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By 1 CE, Hohokam society appears and they start building the largest and also most advanced irrigation systems in the new World. Related to societies to the south, the Hohokam made big ball courts and also played a version of the Mesoamerican ballgame through balls made from a herbal rubber in Mexico and also traded north.

By 1150 they started to construct big temple mounds, including the Mesa Grande communication mound newly opened to the public by the Arizona Museum of organic History. Their descendants, the O"odham civilization of the Salt and also Gila flow communities lug on a vibrant, living society today.

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Santa Cruz Red ~ above BuffHohokam, 900 CESouthern Arizona

This is one extremely huge example of a Hohokam helmet pot, therefore named since of its resemblance to a civilization War I military helmet. This example dates to the late Santa Cruz phase of the Colonial period approximately 900 CE. This is a common "quartered" design, with the bowl being split into 4 quarters, every containing the same repetitive design.

Anonymous gift assisted in by Walter Knox, Scottsdale, AZ

Mogollon

Covering an area extending from central Arizona and also southwestern new Mexico come a point 400 miles south of the mexican border, Mogollon society includes many regional variations. In main Arizona, Mogollon society shows subtle distinctions in architecture and artifacts indigenous those that the Anasazi. In Southwestern brand-new Mexico, the Mimbres branch is well-known for their distinct pottery frequently containing scene of day-to-day life. The Chihuahua branch in north Mexico shares many cultural traits with cultures further south in Mesoamerica. The major site for this area, well-known as Casas Grandes or Paquimé, was a huge town of numerous thousand people. Paquimé to be a good trading center, distributing copper bells, rubber balls, shell ornaments and other products from Mexico north right into the American Southwest.Southwestern societies have lengthy been known for their ceramics v colors and also styles the varied across different social areas and readjusted through time. The big jars or "ollas" displayed here are just rarely discovered surviving the ravages the time.

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Snowflake black on White OllaMogollon, 1100-1250 CEWestern new Mexico-Eastern Arizona

Snowflake black on White is often figured out by the use of separation, personal, instance panels containing repeated designs. Deserve to you view this in the slanted panels top top this olla? Snowflake black color on White is a Mogollon ceramic that occurs in between 1100 and also 1250 CE. That is part of a larger group of ceramic types known together the Cibola Whitewares, which space widely dispersed in both the ancestral Pueblo and Mogollon culture areas of eastern Arizona and also western brand-new Mexico.

Anonymous gift facilitated by Walter Knox, Scottsdale, AZ

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Tularosa black on White OllasMogollon, 1225-1300 CEWestern new Mexico-Eastern Arizona

The Tularosa style, called for the Tularosa basin in brand-new Mexico, is a ceramic of the Mogollon society and dates from around 1225 come 1300 CE. The "scrolls" top top the one olla are an extremely typical that this format of painted pottery. The various other shows a typical "woven" pattern v decorated strips that are in an over and under woven pattern.

Anonymous gift facilitated by Walter Knox, Scottsdale, AZ

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Showlow Polychrome JarMogollon, 1325-1400 CEEastern Arizona

Showlow Polychrome is named for the town of Showlow close to the Mogollon Rim. Showlow Polychrome is a late ceramic, date from 1325 to 1400 CE. Polychromes, poly = many and also chrome = colors, contain 3 come 4 various colors. This is a really rare Showlow polychrome jar.

Anonymous gift promoted by Walter Knox, Scottsdale, AZ

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Tonto Polychrome JarsSalado, 1300-1450 CESouthwest

Tonto polychromes show up late in Southwest prehistory, emerging between 1300 and 1450 CE. This kind is part of a larger and related team of ceramic species known as Salado Polychromes. They very first appear in the 4 Corners area and also then spread quickly throughout the Southwest.

This is an extremely different from most ceramics whose event is minimal to specific regions. Archaeologist Patricia Crown listed that the motifs, which regularly contain parrot or feathered serpent icons (in Aztec the god Quetzalcoatl) in addition to masked figures, are usual on Gila Polychromes. She suggests that this is the start of a brand-new ideology, the Katsina Cult, which this particular day is represented by the Hopi katsinas.

These brand-new gods show up at a time when a serious drought compelled the ancestral Pueblo world out the the four corners area, native which they spread southern throughout Arizona, taking the Gila Polychrome layout of ceramics through them.

Anonymous gift facilitated by Walter Knox, Scottsdale, AZ

Ancestral Pueblo (Anasazi)

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Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde national Park Betatakin, Navajo nationwide Park

Ancestral Pueblo peoples, regularly referred come by the Navajo term "Anasazi" or "Ancient Enemies," occupied a large area the the northern southwest. They appear by 1500 BCE, life in "pithouses" constructed into the ground to insulate them indigenous the summer heat and also winter cold.

From scattered little villages castle tended plants of corn, squash and also beans. About 1200 CE, people from these tiny villages started to conference in huge population centers together social unrest, fueled initially through a significant drought, brushed up through the Southwest.

By the 1200"s warfare ended up being prevalent transparent the American Southwest and the once widely scattered populaces aggregated right into larger town sites. They likewise began to find in defensible locations, producing the splendid cliff homes such together those in Mesa Verde national Park in southern Colorado.

Soon after, many of the genealogical Pueblo civilization migrated south and their sites have been uncovered in the Tonto Basin and Safford sink in southern Arizona. But a few groups, consisting of the Hopi, Zuni and the pueblo civilization of new Mexico remained and survived as thriving societies today.

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Mesa Verde black color on White MugAncestral Pueblo, 1180 come 1300 CEFour Corners Area

With its acquainted shape, resembling a modern-day coffee mug, the Mesa Verde black color on White mug is the above artifact indigenous the late duration of the American Southwest. The mugs generally have a black color organic paint developed from the Beeweed plant. The designs room geometric and also often bordered top top the top and bottom through bands as watched in this example. Mugs are many often found in kivas or with human being burials, contexts that suggest they were most frequently used in a ceremonial context. Some are discovered in rooms and also residential areas.

Gift the Walter Knox, Scottsdale, AZ

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Jeddito black on Orange JarAncestral Hopi, 1250-1350 CENortheastern Arizona

The Jeddito series of ceramic is unusual in 2 respects. First, it have the right to be directly linked to a modern group, the Hopi, who still do some similar types that pottery. Excavators can monitor the transforms in Hopi ceramics from Jeddito, which dates between 1250 come 1350 CE, to contemporary Hopi types. Secondly, Jeddito is one of the few prehistoric Southwestern ceramics that was fired not through wood but with coal. Coal is tho mined now on the Hopi Mesas.

Anonymous gift promoted by Walter Knox, Scottsdale, AZ

Historic Pueblo

The line that traditionally divides historical from primitive is the arrival of the Spanish in the Southwest in 1540, but in some methods this is an arbitrarily distinction. Come of the Europeans was disruptive to timeless Pueblo societies, and also led come the Pueblo rebellion of 1680. However one that the greatest disruptions to genealogical Pueblo methods of life to be the abandonment that pueblos in the Mesa Verde and also Chaco Canyon locations due to drought and other societal emphasize in the 1200s, v depopulation or populace relocation to other areas.

Pueblo societies survived these beforehand severe disruptions and also the later on European invasions, and today gain robust social creativity. The contemporary Western Pueblos room Hopi, Zuni, the Tewa neighborhood at Hano on very first Mesa, Acoma and also Laguna. The east Pueblos space those along and also near the Rio Grande native Taos to Isleta.

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Polychrome particle JarAcoma Pueblo, 1850-1900West-Central new Mexico

Except because that the really short increased neck and direct rim, the vessel is a seeds jar form with a special high shoulder. A wide band attributes a Zuni-influenced trisected composition, with bold diamond motifs filled v black-on-white checker patterns and also fringed with red triangles. The lower section is painted red.

One experienced thinks this jar dates to 1850-1875, a second scholar thinks it dates not much prior to 1900. The surname "Colter" is created on the base. Was this seasoned in the collection of mar Jane Colter, the renowned Arizona architect who designed Hopi House, Hermit"s Rest, Phantom Ranch and also other frameworks at the cool Canyon, and La Posada Hotel in Winslow?

Gift the Charles F. Murphy, Carefree, AZ

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Polychrome JarZuni Pueblo, ca. 1920-1930West-Central brand-new Mexico

This jar indigenous Zuni, new Mexico has actually an indented base that flares to a thick, rounded shoulder, and also a quick neck indented at the shoulder and tapering to a short slightly flared rim. The largely black-on-white painting has accents in red and also some red to fill areas. The paint is composed of 4 panel bands. The tape at the neck is composed of abstract geometric and also curvilinear elements. The upper and lower shoulders contain comparable compositions that function bucks in profile v the red heart-line motif stand on or under curved framing devices. These bands flank a main band of bird in profile painted red. The three shoulder bands are split on opposing political parties by vertical dashboard bands of abstract elements comparable to those found approximately the neck that the vessel. The lower portion is painted red.

Gift that Charles F. Murphy, Carefree, AZ

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Polychrome JarZia Pueblo, 1940-1960New Mexico

The design of this jar mirrors undulating currently of the rainbow in red-brown, over and also under which space white roosters with red combs. The tail feathers are bifurcated, and also the soup comes off the back. There is bunting under the rim and also hatched triangles follow me the rainbow. The Pueblo that Zia is near the Jemez flow in northern brand-new Mexico. Zia civilization speak a Keresan language. The sunlight symbol top top the brand-new Mexico flag is a Zia design.

Gift the Margaret Kline, Phoenix, AZ

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Ca"lako (Shalako) KatsinaZuni Pueblo, ca. 1945-1955West-Central brand-new Mexico

Ca"lako (pronounced Shalako) winter solstice ceremonies take place in December and also concern fertility rites and preparation because that the new year. Katsinas (or Kachinas) are supernatural beings vital in religious and ceremonial life. Conceptually, there room three aspects: they are supernatural beings, masked human dancers, and, carved and also painted dolls. Think the katsinas as messengers indigenous the gods. Dancers that show up in ceremonies are supernatural beings as soon as they don the katsina mask. The dolls are offered to kids as avatars of these beings. This katsina is a Zuni avian divine being that is part of the Ca"lako. The really Ca"lako, in ceremony, stands around 10" tall together it is raised by a pole and also "grows."This katsina doll is probably carved of cottonwood and also is costumed with yarn, beads, fur, feathers, horsehair, and also painted textiles. The is conical in shape and also lacks arms. A wooden headdress has actually feathers attached. A collar, or ruff, made of black yarn, represents spruce. Fur wraps beneath the ruff and also a horsehair lock the hair drops in back. The costume, made of painted textile, is adorned through borders and triangles usual to timeless Zuni Ca"lakos. A beaded turquoise-colored necklace is worn listed below the ruff. A timeless Ca"lako has a horn ~ above either next of the head; below one has broken away. Also, the Ca"lako has actually a characteristic "beak", stood for by a cylinder or mine shape; the is missing in this example. In the Ca"lako ceremony, the divine being makes a loud clacking sound v this wooden beak.

Gift of Charles F. Murphy, Carefree, AZ

Navajo

The Navajo and the Apache are related teams that speak Athapaskan languages. Archaeological evidence says that Athapaskan speakers were in the classic Navajo area through the 1540s. Weaving is crucial tradition among the Navajo. The Navajo gained weaving after their arrival in the Southwest. Part scholars think they learned the arts of weaving indigenous Pueblo peoples, yet the Navajo think the art of weaving to be a sacred gift native Spider Woman, a Navajo holy Person.

Wearing Blankets: classic Period

By the at an early stage 1800"s, the Navajo to be weaving blankets in sheep"s structure (Churro) and also using indigo dye and wool profession cloths ("bayeta"-English "baize") introduced by the Spanish. The bayeta was currently dyed in a red derived from "lac" (Old civilization insects) or native cochineal (New human being cactus insects). The bayeta was raveled and also re-spun as yarn for Navajo weaving. Cochineal, or lac, reds were later on replaced with aniline dyes. The dominant forms were Chief"s Blankets (First, 2nd or 3rd Phases), serapes, and saddle blankets.

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Second phase Navajo Chief"s Blanket1860"s - 1870"sFour Corners area

"Chief"s Blankets", or wearing blankets, of the "Second Phase" have added a design element come the group dark brown, indigo blue & white stripes the the "First Phase" Chief"s Blankets that showed up around 1800. Typically, the design enhancement is a rectangle-shaped bar woven in between the stripes. This ceiling of homespun Churro wool, with organic brown and also white stripes, has 4 rectangular bars woven in raveled bayeta the was dyed v cochineal red. The bars have two to adjust of indigo blue stripes placed in between three terraced diamonds in herbal white and also indigo blue. The diamonds repeat, 3 per bar, making a pattern of twelve across the confront of the blanket. This sample of twelve comes before the pattern of ripe bars or diamonds much more common in the third Phase Chief"s Blankets.

Anonymous gift helped with by Walter Knox, Scottsdale

Third step Chief"s Blankets: 1860"s to 1870"s

The aniline dyes of these later on blankets appear as a brighter red than the darker reds of the cochineal dyed fibers.

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Third phase Variant Navajo Chief"s Blanket1860"s - 1870"sFour Corners area

This ceiling is a third Phase variant, as it includes design elements that both the 2nd and third Phase format Chief"s Blankets. The block style superimposed end the strip pattern is a 2nd Phase element, yet it has a 9-panel diamond design an ext typical of third Phase style. The diamonds ~ above this rug are serrated designs, a design kind which may have been obtained from northern Mexico and also introduced in ~ the Bosque Redondo internment camp in new Mexico (post-1863). The dyes are natural and aniline.

Anonymous gift helped with by Walter Knox, Scottsdale, AZ

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Third phase Chief"s Blanketca. 1865-1870Four Corners Area

This third Phase Chief"s Blanket has actually the 9-panel diamond design set in red squares. The squares are in between bands the blue and also black stripes which alternate with the bands that black and white stripes typical of Chief"s Blankets. This style appears slightly later, 1865-1870 in the four Corners area. The black and also white are of natural fibers, the blue is indigo dyed and the red is aniline dyed yarn.

Gift that Charles F. Murphy, Carefree, AZ

Navajo Weaving: Transitional Period

After 1868, once the period of funeral at Bosque Redondo ended, a number of changes affected the textile sector for Navajo weavings and marked the beginning of the Transitional Period. Weavers became more dependent ~ above commercially be crazy yarn and also the top quality of the product decreased somewhat. The usage of indigo and cochineal dye declined, and also was changed by aniline (coal tar) dyes; bayeta was changed by an orange-red raveled American flannel. Commercially be crazy yarns contained the bright colors of Germantown yarns. The reds throughout this duration take top top a lot brighter appearance. Throughout this duration the focus shifted indigenous making "wearing blankets" to making "rugs" as traders moved into the area to accommodate an enhancing tourist trade.

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Child"s ceiling or Saddle Throwca. 1870-1880Four Corners area

This ceiling features wide vertical panel banding ~ above a brilliant red background. The composition functions a main column of red diamonds outlined in black and white that frame white overcome motifs; white and black zigzag motifs are woven in the lift areas. The 2 flanking panels are comparable to the main one other than that the tips of the diamonds are left open at the outer edges of the textile. The black and white are natural fibers and also the red is both commercial cochineal and also raveled cochineal dyed yarn.

Gift the Charles F. Murphy, Carefree, AZ

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Late Serape-Style Blanketca. 1885-1895Four Corners area

Serape-style blankets, another type of wearing blanket, are longer than they space wide. Stepped or serrate diamond fads of dark red, green, yellow, and also white space vertically aligned across a bright red ar on this blanket. Smaller sized geometrics room woven in ~ the ceiling ends. The black and white are organic fibers if the green and yellow are aniline dyed and the red is both advertisement cochineal and also raveled cochineal dyed yarn.

Gift that Charles F. Murphy, Carefree, AZ

Regional Styles

As the Navajo moved ago into their homeland from the Bosque Redondo after ~ 1868, traders additionally moved right into the area and opened a number of trading posts, some of which space still active. As the traders set-up in various areas, the local Navajos would profession their weavings at the trading short articles for other kinds the goods. In time, the traders began to affect what and also how the weavers developed their textiles. A change was make from wearing blankets, initially made together garments, to rugs that were made generally for the traveler trade. A brand-new design attribute -the use of boundaries -appeared to produce the effect of framing.Tourists progressively arrived by railroad, and, acquainted with rug design from somewhere else (oriental, e.g.)would request patterns, colors, or combinations that appealed come them. In turn, the traders would certainly pass on those needs to the weavers, influencing aspects of the product. In this way, specific posts became associated with details styles the rugs that were typical to your area. This styles became entrenched and also were regularly named after the write-ups where castle appeared. Local styles together as 2 Gray Hills, Teec Nos Pos and Ganado, space still developed today. A high degree of individual variability exists within all of these styles, and not every rugs have the right to be attributed to a particular style.

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Regional layout Rugca.1930-1950Four Corners area

The main architecture of this rug is rather unusual in the it is composed of black and also white arrows, through pointed arrowheads. The arrows suggest to the outer quick edges the the facility grey field. The facility field is surrounding by a white border v gold-brown linear geometrics, and also the entirety is more framed in black. The white, grey and gold-brown fiber is organic white; the black is aniline dyed yarn. Some have attributed this layout to Teec Nos Pos, yet its functions are more independently derived.

Gift the Charles F. Murphy, Carefree, AZ

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Two Gray Hills Rugca. 1930-1950Four Corners area

The main design of this rug is composed of two dominant cross motifs, v bifurcated eight and facility fill elements. The two crosses space separated centrally by a small white serrated diamond motif v a gold-brown border. Parallel rows the black-tipped white and gold-brown feather flank the cross-motifs follow me the external edges the the central grey field, and are repetitive as component of the main fill the the two crosses. The central field is bordered by a white surround with black meanders. The totality is framed in black on the exterior edges. The white, grey and gold-brown fiber is organic white while the black is aniline dyed yarn and the red brown might be carded natural brown with red aniline dyed fibers.

Gift that Charles F. Murphy, Carefree, AZ

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Saddle Blanket, through initials RWc. 1940s-1950sFour Corners area

The asymmetrical architecture of this ceiling is rather unusual. It is split into three panels the uneven proportion, each v a collection of diamond style elements. The two reduced panels space narrow and have the same diamond motif stood for by reversed black and red patterns. Corner designs space squares ~ above the broad panel, and have red, white, and black geometrics on a gold-brown ar framed in red. Edge designs on the opposite edge, in the narrow panel, room squares through white letter in a gold-brown ar framed in black v lateral sheet serrations. Such letters may have been the initials the the weaver, though this is an uncommon practice, or the initials that the purchaser. The external edges the the blanket space corded in red, with tassels follow me the lengthy edges.

Gift of Charles F. Murphy, Carefree, AZ

Apache

The Apache, prefer the Navajo, are component of the Athapaskan-speaking teams that migrated from the northwest and arrived in the four Corners area by the 1540s. The west Apache consist of one division of this larger social group the historically occupied a component of Arizona in between present work Flagstaff and Tucson. This day Western Apache teams in Arizona space generally thought about to be the Tonto, Cibecue, White Mountain and San Carlos Apaches. The west Apache are well-known for their superior basketry weaving, making and using basketry an ext so than pottery. Coiled, twilled, and twined basketry approaches were every employed. The Apache are ideal known for your coiled trays and also jars, coiled or twilled water party coated with pine pitch, and twilled or twined burden baskets.

See more: How Much Does An Eight Ball Of Coke Weigh, 8 Ball Coke Weight

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Coiled Basketry Jar, 19" x 15"Western Apache, ca. 1885-1900Fort Apache, East-Central Arizona

Western Apache baskets are generally coiled v a three-rod warp that willow, and a weft the willow and devil"s claw splints. 3 rods in a pyramidal setup make a heavy coil because that a firm foundation to the jar; through tight stitching of the weft this renders for a sturdy container. This flared-neck jar has a decorative pattern of bold vertical zigzag bands, on a tan field, expanding from base to rim. The tan ar derives native the willow and also the black color zigzags are from the devil"s nipper splints. The coils space initiated in ~ the base wherein they type a black color circle visible just as part of the basal design. Nine bands space initiated from this circle and also extend vertically to the rim come cover the entire style field. Each tape is formed of 2 parallel zigzag lines, made up of stack rectangles offset to form steps. The bands room closed in ~ the base and also at the rim.The repetition of architecture elements, and in this case the encircling zigzag bands, lend a dynamic "motion" come the pattern the is typical in western Apache basketry. Common is the black color circle which starts the coil, and also from which the style begins and extends to the rim. Form, structure, and also design the this basketry jar are all typical for the western Apache group.