The indigenous peoples the the Pacific Northwest coast are the pre-Columbian citizens of the Pacific Northwest Coast, your descendants, and also many ethnic groups who identify with those historic peoples. Castle are currently situated within the Canadian province of british Columbia and also the U.S. Says of Alaska, Washington and also Oregon.The native peoples the the Pacific Northwest Coast at one time had the most densely populated areas of indigenous people. The land and also waters noted rich herbal resources v cedar and also salmon, and also highly structured cultures arisen from relatively dense populations. In ~ the Pacific Northwest, plenty of different countries developed, each v their own distinctive history, culture, and also society. Some cultures in this an ar were very comparable and share specific elements, such together the prestige of salmon to their cultures, while others differed. Prior to contact, and for a short time after colonisation, some of these teams regularly carried out war against each other through raids and also attacks. V warfare they gathered captives because that slavery.The production of beautiful and practical objects (for all tribal communities) offered as a means of transmitting stories, history, wisdom and also property native generation come generation. Art provided Indigenous people with a tie to the soil by showing their backgrounds on totem poles the big (Plank) dwellings of the Pacific Northwest coastline – the symbols depicted were a consistent reminder of your birth places, lineages and nations. Because of the variety of natural resources and also the affluence of most Northwest tribes, there to be plenty of recreation time to create art. Plenty of works of art served practical purposes, such together clothing, tools, weapons of war and also hunting, transportation, cooking, and shelter; yet others were purely aesthetic.The an initial Nations people of the Northwest coast have a very rich heritage of hats, cloaks, body armour, and also masks. Before Europeans arrived and also introduced cloth, most seaside people wore minimal clothing. Men went naked when weather permitted and women would certainly wear a basic skirt make of shredded cedar fibre. Both sexes wore woven bark capes and spruce root hats as a defense from the rain.Text above: Wikipedia and http://www.bcarchives.gov.bc.ca/

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Gwiis Halaytyt (Dancing Robe)A Gwiis Halayt could only it is in worn by Simgitgat (chiefs). The weaving the this form of "Chilkat" dancing robe originated with the Nisga’a. Each blanket is made from dyed mountain goat wool and cedar bark, and also required as lot as a year come complete. The facility design is one ayukws (crest) of a Nisg-a’a wilp (house). Got at Lax-g-alts’ap, most likely from a sim’oogit of Ank’idaa, 1905.Photo and also text: http://nisgaamuseum.ca/node/32

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Tlingit ceremonial run blanketThe ceiling is woven in pale yellow and also blue against a wealthy black ground, through a main rectangular face, in ~ an abstract totemic field enclosing stylised wings, eyes and also other crest characteristics, the lateral fields likewise ornamented; four corner ties in black and also yellow continuing to be at every side.Width 65 3/4 in, 167 cmPhoto and text: http://www.sothebys.com/

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The overall design of this robes, often dubbed Chilkat blankets, is really standardised, although every one is unique. They room superbly made, with hill goat"s wool totally covering a main point of shredded and also twisted cedar bark. Photo: Samuel (1990)

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James Jackson (Anaaxoots or Annihootz or Annahootz) (left) and also Augustus Bean
(K’alyaan Eesh, or Klonish) (right)Head males of the bear Clan in ~ Sitka potlatch, Dec. 23, 1904The two males are wearing Chilkat blankets and hats; full length; black color background. Photograph greatly retouched through creator. Photographer"s number 101.Photo: Alaska State Library, situation & Draper photo Collection, PCA 39-784, ASL-P39-0784, Case and also Draper collection of Photographs, 1898-1920Source and text: http://vilda.alaska.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/cdmg21/id/53/rec/56

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Raven/Sisutl revolution mask.A Raven/Sisutl revolution mask in the irreversible collection the The children Museum the Indianapolis.This modern piece for exhibition illustrates one alternative method for revealing the mythical being surprise inside the mask. The lower beak is able to be manipulated for speech, and also the upper beak has been split to allow it to open up up to present the mythical gift behind it. In addition, the reduced beak in this rendition develops the body of the mythical being once the mask is in its totally open position. Artist: Oscar Matilpi, Kwakwaka"wakw Nation, 1996Photo: Randy JohnsonSource: This picture was noted to Wikimedia Commons through The Children"s Museum that Indianapolis as part of an ongoing participating project. The artifact represented in the photo is component of the permanent collection of The children’s Museum the Indianapolis.Permission: an imaginative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license

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Blanket and MaskMask and blanket screen - arts works developed by college student of the Gitanmaax school of Northwest coast Indian Art situated at the "Ksan historic Village.Language Group: TsimshianSub-language Group: GitxsanVillage: Ksan historic VillagePhoto: © G.F. Mcdonald s Collection, 1972Permission: Courtesy George MacDonald, Director, bill Reid Centre because that NWC Art research studies at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC.

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Button BlanketMrs. Morrison in a switch blanket. The pole crest on various other blanket is after ~ a pole at Kisgegas.Language Group: TsimshianSub-language Group: GitxsanVillage: Ksan historic VillagePhoto: © G.F. Macdonald Collection, 1972Permission: Courtesy George MacDonald, Director, invoice Reid Centre because that NWC Art studies at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC.

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Gitxsan chef Ernest Hyzims poses in a Dog Fish blanket at "Ksan historic VillageLanguage Group: TsimshianSub-language Group: GitxsanVillage: Ksan historic VillagePhoto: © G.F. Mcdonald s Collection, 1972Permission: Courtesy George MacDonald, Director, bill Reid Centre for NWC Art research studies at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC.

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Button Blankets and change MasksKsan carvers and dancers, Walter Harris with ago to camera, art Strerrit dancing through mask in background. Ksan village.Language Group: TsimshianSub-language Group: GitxsanVillage: Ksan historic VillagePhoto: © G.F. Mcdonald s Collection, 1972Permission: Courtesy George MacDonald, Director, invoice Reid Centre for NWC Art research studies at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC.

crucial transformation mask

The Pacific Northwest Coast an initial Nations, and specifically the Kwakwaka’wakw Nation, have a heritage of change masks, which allow the performer/dancer to readjust from an animal such as the raven right into a mythical being. The masks and capes provided are often part of performances in ~ Potlatch ceremonies. The masks have actually cords come open and move components of the mask, animating that in order come tell stories and sing songs.This mask might be indigenous an artist of the Kwakwaka’wakw Nation.Typically, the dancer speak or sings a story, add by activities of the mask, enabling the audience to see the mask supposedly talking, together (for the raven or eagle masks) the mine opens and closes, giving the impression the speech comes from the dancer. At the culmination the the story, the dancer/performer is able come suddenly, to great effect, open up the beak of the bird fully, or in this situation open the wings, to expose the confront of a humanoid, powerful, mythical being. This details mask shown listed below is important and an ext versatile than most due to the fact that it allows the performer to move far much more dramatically from telling the story come the denouement of revealing the challenge of the mythical being. In masks with the face between the upper and also lower beaks of the crow or eagle, this revelation is preempted through the inadvertent and unavoidable showing of the mask in ~ the beak. In the case of this mask, the adjust from the raven telling a story, come the presentation the the mythical gift is far more dramatic and also impressive. various other masks such together that of Eagle Mask closed, from Alert Bay, Vancouver Island, through a Kwakwaka’wakw artist, have completed the same result by splitting the upper beak into two halves to expose the mythical being, while maintaining the lower movable beak for the very first part of the performance, wherein the eagle is "speaking" indigenous the mask. Kilroy-Ewbank (2021) is a an excellent reference on transformation masks. Dr Kilroy-Ewbank writes:Kwakwaka’wakw bands space arranged into four clans (Killer Whale, Eagle, Raven, and also Wolf clans). The clans are divided into numayn (or ‘na’mina), which can be loosely interpreted as "group that fellows of the exact same kind" (essentially teams that mutual a usual ancestor). Numayns were responsible because that safe-guarding stakes symbols and for send their certain rights - which could include accessibility to natural resources (like salmon fishing areas) and rights to sacred names and also dances that concerned a numayn"s ancestor or the group’s origins. The numayn to be ranked, and typically only one person might fill a clues at any type of given minute in time. Each rank entailed details rights, consisting of ceremonial privileges - favor the best to undertake a mask such together the Brooklyn Museum"s Thunderbird transformation mask. Animal revolution masks had crests for a provided numayn. Ancestral entities and also supernatural pressures temporarily embody dancers wearing this masks and other ceremonial regalia.

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The wings close, completely hiding the mythical number inside.On each of the wing is a sculpted white hand, decorated with a red spot. Photos: Courtesy the the owner

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The abalone shell provided for the eye has actually been particularly well chosen and prepared. The is probably of California abalone, acquired by trade. The species native to the Northwest shore is no as colourful as the California species, and now the the north American abalone is protected, abalone covering is imported from brand-new Zealand and an ext southerly American climes. Photo: Courtesy that the ownerAdditional text: Shearar (2000)

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The mask has a movable lower beak, enabling the Raven to "speak".Photos: Courtesy that the owner

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At the suitable time, the performer opens the wings to reveal the mythical figure with great effect. Photos: Courtesy of the owner

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The cords which regulate the beak and wings have differently shaped wood tags, which enable the show to immediately know i m sorry cord is which. Photos: Courtesy the the owner

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On the within of each wing is a red hand on i beg your pardon a white, red centred eye has actually been painted ~ above the palm. Due to the fact that this unusual style is repeated on the exterior of the wing together well, the would show up to it is in an identifier of part kind, perhaps the numayn come which the carver belonged. Photo: Courtesy the the owner

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Above are an excellent views that the back of the mask, reflecting the cords used to manipulate the change mask, the holes because that the eyes, nostrils and also mouth, and the 2 thick cable anchors for the attachments of a (possibly leather, or a wood frame and netting)harness or hood come fit end the wearer"s head.Also shown in closeup at left is the illegible signature and also date the 1947 in red. These photographs present that the mask was not supposed to be "worn" in close contact with the dancer"s face. The strings used to move the assorted parts of the mask preclude that. Thus there would have had actually to have actually been a well created "harness" or "basket" ~ above the wearer"s head to which the mask was attached. Two coarse modern-day cords have the right to be seen towards the peak of the mask i beg your pardon must have been provided for this attachments to the "harness". Photos: Courtesy the the owner

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The mask has actually a facility shape. The wings are attached via a leather hinge, when the lower beak is hinged top top what is possibly a later on repair, pieces of copper wire.Here the eye make of abalone shell and its bordering painting are shown to advantage. Photos: Courtesy the the owner

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The dramatic possibilities of this mask in the hands of a grasp performer room endless. Photo: Courtesy the the owner

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Cowichan Indian sweater Maker, in between 1941 and 1943. Photo: Williams Bros. Photographers CollectionDonation: Donn B.A. Williams in 1987Source: http://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/cowichan-indian-sweater-maker;radPermission: publicly Domain

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Cowichan unzippered sweater, ca 1966The fashion in Canada is for a cardigan style, opened sweater. Originally a buttoned closure was used, though currently a zippered closure is the norm. Like the unzippered style of sweater, I had actually this "Thunderbird" motif pullover specially produced me as soon as I stayed in Canada, ordered through the Hudson"s Bay company Department Store. The label has yellowed a bit in 47 years, however the sweater is as great as new. The Hudson"s only Company, frequently referred to together "The Bay" is the oldest commercial copy, group in north America (in consistent operation because that over 340 years) and one that the earliest in the world. A hair trading business for lot of that existence, this particular day the Hudson"s Bay company owns and operates sleeve stores throughout Canada and also the joined States.Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013Additional text adjusted from Wikipedia

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Cowichan zippered sweater, ca 2000Note that the label has actually not readjusted its design in at the very least 34 years. Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013

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Cowichan wool being hung to dry, in between 1941 and 1943. Photo: Williams Bros. Photographers CollectionDonation: Donn B.A. Williams in 1987Source: http://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/cowichan-wool-being-hung-to-dry-3;radPermission: publicly Domain

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Cowichan wool being hung come dry, in between 1941 and also 1943. (All the wool provided in the sweaters is self-coloured, that is, the wool comes from white, brown, grey and also black sheep, and no dyes room used-Don)Photo: Williams Bros. Photographers CollectionDonation: Donn B.A. Williams in 1987Source: http://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/cowichan-wool-being-hung-to-dry-3;radPermission: publicly Domain

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Armour and also Helmet DisplayThe "Ksan Performance team re-enacting the story of the warrior chef Nehl"xt or "Nekt at "Ksan historical Village. The story takes ar at "Battle Hill" close to Gitwangak village. "Nekt was an aggressive warrior and led countless successful raids versus neighbouring tribes. The is remembered and also celebrated by the Gitxsan people as a powerful and good leader. Language Group: Tsimshian Sub-language group: Gitxsan Village: Ksan historical VillagePhoto: G. F. Mc donalds Collection, 1979Permission: Courtesy George MacDonald, Director, invoice Reid Centre because that NWC Art researches at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC.

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Haida polychrome twined hatThe hat is of standard tapering form, very carefully and tightly woven in split spruce root, in three-strand skip stitch line techniques, with a concentric zigzag sample on the brim, a smoother texture on the head extending the crown, overlaid through painted totemic stakes designs in red and black pigments.height 7 1/2 in, 19 centimeter by diameter 16 in, 40.5 cmPhoto and also text: http://www.sothebys.com/

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Haida painted basketry hatDecorated roughly the crown v mirror-image totemic animal effigy motifs.Height 140 mm, diameter 394 mmPhoto and text: http://www.bonhams.com/auctions/20296/lot/1045/

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A woven cedar bark hat, hand painted with a frog, by Charles Edenshaw. The four-pointed star through bicoloured points is the signature the this artist.Collected at Masset in 1911 through C. C. Perry.CMC VII-B-899 (S92-4284)Photo and text: http://www.civilization.ca/cmc/exhibitions/aborig/haida/haacp09e.shtml

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Tlingit polychrome wooden headdressThis frontlet, (band worn top top the forehead ) of contempt convex form, is finely carved through a bird, more than likely a raven, with recurved beak, high pointed cheekbones, and pointed oval eye rims inset with rich blue environment-friendly plaques of abalone covering as student beneath high solution arching brows, enclosed by a deeply recessed groove, surmounted by a planarization border, painted in vermilion red and also inlaid with plaques of abalone shell.Height 6 1/2 in, 16.5 cm, width 6 1/4 in, 16 cm. Photo and text: http://www.sothebys.com/

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Tlingit polychrome wood maskThe mask is written of carved wood and pigments, more than likely a representation of a human/hawk hybrid; pierced twice at each side and tied with hide straps for suspension. Elevation 9 3/4 in, 25 cm.Photo and text: http://www.sothebys.com/

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Bear MaskBear with the ring of the sun Mask created by Earl MuldoeLanguage Group: TsimshianSub-language Group: GitxsanVillage: Ksan historic VillagePhoto: G.F.


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Mc donalds Collection, 1972Permission: Courtesy George MacDonald, Director, bill Reid Centre for NWC Art researches at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC.

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Eagle mask v movable wing NootkaJacobsen collection, 1881Photo: FA2010, February 2009Permission: windy DomainText: WikipediaSource: phibìc America department, Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin, Germany

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