Ribault explains the Timucua as “of great stature, fine shaped of human body as any people in the world; an extremely gentle, courteous, and also good-natured, the tawny color, hawked nose, and of pleasant countenance.” 1 they were great swimmers and could climb trees v agility. The only invariable post of apparel worn through males to be the breechclout, which we are informed consisted of a painted deerskin. Le Moyne represents this together if it were in one piece, passed about the privates, and carried round and also tied in ~ the back. If his representation can be relied top top the Florida Indians would certainly be collection off in this details from all Indian tribes well-known to us, but there is every factor to believe he is wrong. As worn elsewhere, the breechclout consisted of a belt around the waist and also a skin or item of cloth passed between the legs and between the belt and also the body, the ends being enabled to fall down in front and behind. The the natives did have belts is verified by Ribault’s narrative, for he claims that once he was at the mouth that the St. Johns flow a chief sent him a girdle of red animal leather in token the friendship. 1 The warmth climate of Florida rendered added garments less necessary than with other southern tribes, yet it is quite certain that they to be worn. So far as guys are concerned, the only direct evidence of this which us have, however, is included in one of Le Moyne’s drawings in i m sorry the chief Saturiwa is represented wearing a lengthy garment, 2 and also in a statement by Spark, who says:

In their apparell the men only vse deer skinnes, wherewith some onely couer your priuy members, various other some vse the very same as apparel to couer lock before and also behind; which skins space painted, part yellow and also red, part blacke and russet, and also euery male according come his owne fancy. 3

He adds the the shade with i m sorry these skins were adorned “neither fadeth away no one altereth color” once washed. 4 The one figured through Le Moyne is supposedly a painted deerskin, however it shows up to it is in intended fairly to include to the gorgeous illustration of the chief who wears it 보다 to protect him native the cold. Women wore a type of quick skirt made of Spanish moss. 5 If La Moyne may be trusted, rather of gift fastened about the waist, this was sometimes lugged up over one shoulder. 6 An anonymous writer that accompanied Laudonnière says:

The ladies have approximately them a particular very lengthy white moss, spanning their breasts and also their private parts. 7


Sometimes this was of skin, for Le Challeux remarks:

The woman girds herself through a small covering that the skin the a deer or other animal, the node saddling the left side over the thigh, in order come cover the most private parts. 8

And Hawkins’s chronicler confirms this:

The women also for their apparell vse painted skinnes, yet most of lock gownes that mosse, somewhat longer than our mosse, which castle sowe together artificially, and also make the exact same surplesse wise. 3

Dickenson testifies come the same effect:

The ladies natives of these communities clothe themselves with the moss of trees, make gowns and petticoats thereof, which at a distance, or in the night, looks an extremely neat. 9

Most the the civilization of whom he speaks were, however, refugees native Guale. In his rigid Le Moyne additionally mentions “many pieces of a ingredient made of feathers, and also most skilfully ornamented with rushes of various colors,” sent in indigenous the west Timucua by a French officer. They may have been those feather cloaks so common throughout the south. The ladies wore their hair long, however certainly no in the disheveled fashion stood for by Le Moyne. 10 native a remark of Ribault that is obvious that the guys were in the habit that pulling out the hair ~ above all parts of their bodies except the head. 11 They execute not seem to have roached their heads like the Creeks. Ribault says, in describing those Indians whom he saw, “Their hair to be long and also trussed up, with a lace made of herbs, come the top of their heads,” and also this remark is shown by Laudonnière and also in the photos of Le Moyne. 12 In another place, whereby he explains the leading males who attach Saturiwa, Ribault states that your hair to be “trussed up, gathered and also worked with each other with great cunning, and also fastened ~ the kind of a diadem.” 13 Le Challeux says:

They keep their hair long, and they truss that up neatly all roughly their heads, and this truss of hair offer them as a quiver in i beg your pardon to lug their arrows once they are at war. 8

He additionally says, concerning feathers:

They esteem naught richer or an ext beautiful than bird feathers of various colors. 14

These are stood for by Le Moyne on number of of his subjects, provided in a great variety of ways. One has a single sheaf of feather coming directly out indigenous the knot of hair at the back of his head. One more has a number of long, curving feathers in the same place, arguing a fountain. An additional has a type of feather tassel tied to the topknot by a cord or small withe. Countless have feathers about the edges of the hair lower down, one of two people alone or in enhancement to some of the main clumps of feathers just mentioned. Saturiwa and also some that his leading guys are represented on assorted occasions with little tufts of feathers of exceptional elevation over the center of the forehead in front, with the tail of an pet hanging from the topknot, or again with what appears to be a metallic diadem encircling the forehead. Together is fine known, circlets the this last kind made of silver- were in common use amongst our southerly Indians. There must also be pointed out skins of animals with the head on, among which appears with a type of tassel hanging the end of the mouth. The persons who wear these room evidently doctors or other principal functionaries. 15 Laudonnière claims that feathers were worn specifically when they went to war. 16 perhaps the most exciting headdress is what shows up to be a basket hat. 17 us should have to go as much as the good plateaus to find anything comparable. Pareja, however, speak of a palm-leaf cap worn through the women, 18 and this is what Le Moyne may have intended.

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Turning come ornaments, we find it worthy of keep in mind that there is no evidence that these people pierced the nose or the ears other than in one place, the soft lobe, whereby nearly every one of Le Moyne’s figures, both male and female, are stood for with a type of dumb-bell shame ornament. 19 Le Moyne says of this:

All the men and women have the end of their ear pierced, and also pass with them small oblong fish-bladders, which when inflated shine like pearls, and which, gift dyed red, look prefer a light-colored carbuncle. 20

In two cases men are stood for with staple-shaped earrings, in one v a ring, and in another with the claws of some bird thrust through this member. The human being wearing these critical was most likely a doctor. Claims Le Challeux:

They compensation highly tiny beads, i beg your pardon they do of the skeletal of fishes and other animals and of green and red stones. 21

Ornaments were also worn about the neck, wrists, and also ankles, just over the elbows and also biceps, just listed below the knees, and hanging from the breechclout. One mrs is represented with a double row of pearls or beads about her waist. 22 Ribault says that the French obtained from the indians of Florida, gold, silver, copper, lead, turquoises, “and a great abundance of pearls, which lock told us they took the end of oysters follow me the riverside; and also as fair pearls together are found in any country of the world.” 23 by oysters I expect we room to understand fresh-water mussels. At least the greater part of the pearls among the southerly Indians were extracted indigenous these. Claims Spark:

The Frenchmen obteined pearles of lock of good bignesse, yet they were blacke, it is in meanes of rosting the them, because that they carry out not fish because that them as the Spanyards doe, however for your meat. 24

Shells, and also beads settled of shells, were additionally employed, and Le Moyne mentions “bracelets of fishes’ teeth.” 25 The gold and also silver, as Laudonnière specifically states – and also in this the is confirmed by Fontaneda – were acquired from wrecked Spanish vessels bound native Mexico and also other components of the “Indies” come Spain; 26 and also the quantity among them speaks volumes for the variety of disasters of this kind which must have taken place.

Hawkins’s chronicler describes the gold and silver discovered in Florida at considerable length, however to lot the very same purport:

Golde and siluer castle want, not: for at the Frenchmens an initial comming thither they had actually the same offered them for little or nothing, for they receiued for a hatchet two pound load of golde, due to the fact that they knew no the estimation thereof: however the souldiers gift greedy of the same, did take it it indigenous them, giuing them nothing for it: the which they perceiuing, the both the Frenchmen did substantially esteeme it, and likewise did rigorously deale v them, by taking the same away indigenous them, at last would certainly not it is in knowen they had any kind of more, neither durst they weare the exact same for feare of being taken away: so the sauing at their very first comming, they could get nobody of them: and how they come of this gold and siluer the Frenchmen recognize not together yet, but by gesse, that hauing trauelled to the Southwest the the cape, hauing found the very same dangerous, by means of sundry banks, together we likewise haue discovered the same: and there finding poles which were wracks of Spanyards comming indigenous Mexico, iudged that they had gotten treasure through them. For it is most true that diuers wracks haue boone made of Spanyards, hauing much treasure: because that the Frenchmen hauing trauelled come the capeward an hundred and fiftie miles, walk finde 2 Spanyards v the Floridians, i m sorry they brought afterward to your fort, whereof one was in a carauel comming from the Indies, which was actors away fourteene yeeres ago, the various other twelue yeeres; of who fellowes some eecaped, othersome were slain by the inhabitants. It seemeth thay had estimation of their golde & siluer, for it is wrought flat and also grauen, which lock weare about their neckes; othersome make round like a pancake, v a hole in the midst, come boulster vp their breasts withall, since they thinke that a deformity come haue good breasts. As for mines one of two people of gold or siluer, the Frenchmen deserve to heare that none castle haue vpon the Island, but of copper, whereof as yet also they haue not made the proofe, due to the fact that they to be but few men: however it is no unlike, however that in the maine where room high hilles, might be golde and also siluer and in Mexico, since it is all one maine. 27

To the very same origin have to be deadline the “gold alloyed with brass, and silver not thoroughly smelted” which among Laudonnière’s lieutenants sent out him indigenous the western Timucua districts. 28 The posts made that these, however, were without doubt operated over right into objects together as had actually been manufactured out of copper already in pre-Columbian times. I have actually made mention of the metal diadems. La Moyne figures round and oval metal plates strung together right into bands listed below the knee and over the biceps. Number of them also appear fastened come the breechclouts by different cords in the path of a fringe, and also larger one pieces space hung around the necks of numerous of the principal men. 15 We space told the the bowl fastened to the breechclouts were placed there so as to produce a tinkling sound as soon as the wearer moved, and also they were particularly used in dances. 20 exactly how they were made quick to the strings is not evident, yet the large neck pieces were secured to a cord about the neck that the wearer by means of a feet in the facility of the plate, v which the cord was passed and knotted ~ above the exterior so that the knot would certainly not traction through. 15 The later on southern Indian technique of fastening silver ornaments to clothing was similar. Every one of the gorgets i beg your pardon Le Moyne depicts room circular, while the various other plates room oval. 15 In his message he enumerates amongst the things sent out by La Roche Ferriere from the western Timucua nation “circular plates of gold and also silver as large as a moderate-sized platter, such as they room accustomed come wear to protect the earlier and chest in war.” 28 This passage suggests an additional use because that these plates; and also no doubt they in reality did furnish a certain amount of protection to the wearer; however if they to be consciously worn v this object in view the idea must have actually been secondary, for many of the warriors are stood for without them, and also the biggest that Le Moyne numbers furnish but very partial protection. Ribault mentions one Indian who had hanging around his neck “a ring plate the red copper, well polished, v a tiny one of silver hung in the center of it; and on his ear a small plate the copper, through which lock wipe the sweat from their bodies.” 13 This last was fairly utilitarian than ornamental, however seems to have served both purposes. The is the only point out of a sweat scraper in America the has come to my attention. Another man had “a pearl hanging to a collar the gold around his neck, as good as one acorn.” 23 If we could trust the expression used here we would need to suppose another kind the neck ornament which fitted closer 보다 the ornaments currently described, but this is the just Florida referral upon which such a conclusion deserve to be based, and also nothing that the type is figured by Le Moyne. However Le Moyne speak of “girdles the silver-colored balls, some round and some oblong.” 29 If the translation is correct us seem to have an ornament rather more daunting to manufacture 보다 the plates in other places described, yet here again there is no details evidence through which to earlier up the inference. Silver- chains stated as worn through the chiefs 30 were more than likely of Spanish origin. The beads and pearls were arranged in different strings or mixed together in every the places in which metal plates can be worn, other than as tinklers top top the breechclout. Spark says:

The Floridians haue piece of vnicomes hornes which they weare around their necks, whereof the Frenchmen obteined numerous pieces. 24

The absolute silence of French writers on this subject is ground for apprehension that Spark misunderstood the beginning of the covering gorgets, despite it is quite possible that bison horns or parts of them were worn in this manner.

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In one photo Le Moyne to represent feather fans on the end of poles borne by 2 companions that the chief and again through companions of a woman being brought to the chief together his wife. 31 A Florida chief gift Ribault through a “plume, a pan of hamshau (heron) feathers, dyed red.” 32

Like their neighbors to the north, the Timucua resorted come tattooing an extremely extensively. Ribault says:

The forepart of your bodies and also arms they also paint through pretty gadgets in azure, red, and also black, so well and also properly, the the finest painters the Europe can not improve upon it. 33

This is not provided as tattooing, yet Laudonnière is evidently speak of the same designs as soon as he remarks:

The most component of them have actually their bodies, arms, and thighs painted with an extremely fair devices, the paint whereof can never it is in taken away, due to the fact that the exact same is pricked into their flesh. 34

Says Le Moyne:

The reader must be educated that all these chiefe and also their wives ornament your skin v punctures i ordered it so regarding make specific designs, as the following pictures show. Doing this sometimes makes them ailing for seven or eight days. They obstacle the punctured areas with a certain herb, which pipeline an indelible color. 35

Le Challeux additionally says the “for ornament they have actually their skin checkered (marqueté) in a weird fashion,” 36 and also John Spark, chronicler of Hawkins’s second voyage, to add the adhering to testimony:

They execute not omit to paint their bodies additionally with curious knots, or antike worke, as every guy in his own an intricate deuiseth, i m sorry painting, to make it continue the better, castle se v a thorne to pricke your flesh, and dent in the same, by which the painting might have far better hold. 3

They supplemented this through temporary confront paintings, an especially upon state occasions or as soon as they checked out war.

In your warres lock vse a sleighter color of paint their faces, in order to to do themselves shew the an ext fierce; i beg your pardon after their warres ended, they wash away againe. 3

Farther top top he states that the colors employed were “red, blacke, yellow, and russet, really perfect.” 4 when Ribault and his companions overcome the St. Johns after having met the indians on one side, he says that he uncovered them “waiting for united state quietly, and in good order, with new paintings upon your faces, and also feathers upon your heads.” 37 and also Laudonnière says that when they visited war lock painted their encounters much, “and stick your hair complete of feathers, or down, that they may seem more terrible.” 38 Le Moyne notes that they to be “in the habit of paint the skin roughly their mouths of a blue color.” 39 prefer the Creeks, your neighbors, they retained their bodies spanned with be affected by each other grease, for some ceremonial reason, Laudonnière declares, and also to safeguard them indigenous the sun’s heat. 40

The chiefs Onatheaqua and Houstaqua living close to the Apalachee painted their encounters black, if the other Timucua chiefs painted your red. 41 The Indians first seen by De Soto and his guys at Tampa Bay were painted red. 42

Another peculiar custom is thus described by Le Moyne:

They let your nails flourish long both top top fingers and toes, cut (or scraping) the former away, however, in ~ the political parties (with a specific shell), so regarding leave them very sharp, the men especially; and when lock take one of the adversary they sink their nails deep in his forehead, and also tear under the skin, so regarding wound and blind him. 39