This web page covers the vocabulary and also language that rugby through looking in ~ its background, equipment and also people. Check your knowledge with the vocabulary quiz and comprehension quiz.

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In 1845, 3 boys in ~ Rugby college in England published the rules of a video game that had been played at their school for at least 100 years. They dubbed it "rugby football" and also all the modern forms that rugby arisen from their game, including rugby league, touch rugby, rugby sevens, wheelchair rugby and also rugby union, and other gamings such as American and also Canadian football. While every the creates of rugby room popular, rugby union is the form of the video game we will certainly be looking in ~ here. The is by far the finest known, and its premier tournament, the Rugby people Cup, is among the best sporting events in the world. Only football"s FIFA civilization Cup and also the Olympic games are watched by more people than the Rugby people Cup.

History

Many historians think rugby emerged from a game referred to as "Cornish hurling" the was play in Cornwall, England, in the 17th and 18th centuries. In this game, the first team to obtain the ball to your "goal" was the winner, and also there to be very few rules and no referees. It was a wild and also dangerous game, and rugby may have actually been developed as a less-violent form of Cornish hurling, with rules and also a referee, that upper-class guys in a school choose Rugby might play without acquiring seriously hurt.

After the boys at Rugby school published the rule of their video game in 1845 it spread throughout England, and also in 1871 clubs from almost everywhere the nation met in London to type the Rugby soccer Union. The game continued to build until 1895, as soon as a significant dispute over payments to players led to the development of a rival organization, the north Rugby football Union. These 2 organizations contended for regulate of the game, but neither could win complete control. As a result, two forms of the game, or "codes", developed. One was run by the Rugby football Union and called "rugby union", and players that this code couldn"t knife money from the video game (though rugby union players have the right to earn money now). The various other was operation by the north Rugby soccer Union and also called "rugby league", and players that this code were permitted to earn money. These 2 codes have actually slightly various rules, with the most important differences being in the way play is continued after a player has actually been tackled, and in the number of players on every team; 15 because that rugby union and also 13 for rugby league. Both codes spread out to plenty of countries in the 20th century, and also countries that currently have strong rugby union teams encompass France, Australia, England, Ireland, brand-new Zealand, Fiji, Canada, south Africa, Wales, Argentina, Italy, and also Scotland.

Football is a gentleman"s video game played by ruffians, and rugby is a ruffian"s video game played by gentlemen.

This old British speak cleverly contrasts football (or soccer) with rugby. "Ruffian" is an old-fashioned word definition a tough, violent, maybe criminal person. The saying shows the irony that the truth that a rough and also dangerous video game like rugby was played by polite, well-educated "gentlemen", if the much gentler and safer video game of football to be played by tough, lower-class males with a call for violence. Even today rugby players could seem come be very polite gentlemen when compared to countless footballers, specifically those checked out swearing in ~ referees and also angrily abusing them when a decision goes against them. Some civilization might even say the this old British saying still uses today.

How the video game Works

Rugby union is commonly played on a grass-covered pitch 100 metres long and also 70 metres vast (see chart below). Each team has actually 15 players and a game lasts for 80 minutes. The game is played through an oval-shaped round that players can kick, operation with, or pass to teammates in order to score tries or absent goals.

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To score a try, worth 5 points, a player must bring the ball across the opposition"s try line and ground it. His team"s finest kicker deserve to then knife two more points for the conversion if the kicks the ball in between the goalposts and over the crossbar. But scoring a try is no so easy. Once an attacking team"s players room running with the sphere towards the shot line, lock are faced with a line of big, strong defenders that are experts at tackling. To gain past these defenders, attacking players deserve to pass the round to each other until one of them find a space in the defence with which they have the right to run to score a try. The ball have the right to only be passed backwards or sideways, however; a forward pass is a foul the the referee should penalize.

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The ball is normally passed underarm (see above) and it should be thrown ahead of a running player so he can capture it without slowing down. Defenders can only tackle a player who is delivering the round (see below). They can not tackle, or also block, any other players. Prevent or tripping is a foul referred to as obstruction.

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As quickly as a player is tackled, he must pass the round or let walk of it. Any player from one of two people team, consisting of the player simply tackled, have the right to then choose up the ball and start a new attack by one of two people passing it, kicking it, or running with it. Players can also form a pack over a loosened ball, called a ruck, in bespeak to push it in the direction of the try line. A maul is similar to a ruck, yet is formed roughly a standing player after ~ he has actually been tackled however not taken to ground. When the ball comes out of a ruck or a maul, a new attack deserve to begin. If the ball is within kicking distance, a player deserve to score a field goal, likewise called a drop goal, worth 3 clues by kicking the ball in between the goalposts and also over the crossbar v a drop kick.

Fouls and Penalties

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A goal worth 3 point out can additionally be scored when a team is forgive a penalty kick. In this situation the kicker have the right to use either a drop kick or a place kick. Not all fouls room punished through a punish kick, however; only the more serious ones favor obstruction and also dangerous play. Because that minor offences prefer a forward pass or a knock-on, a scrum have the right to be forgive (see above). In a scrum, a team"s eight forwards connect arms, bending over and also push versus a comparable group native the the contrary team. A player indigenous the non-offending team climate throws the ball into the scrum and also players try to gain possession of that by kicking it backward toward their own side. When it comes the end of the scrum, it deserve to be choose up and also then passed, kicked, or lugged forward to begin a new attack. Penalties space awarded through the referee, who controls the game with the assist of two various other officials dubbed the touch judges. If a player commits a major offence, the referee deserve to caution him (yellow card) and also the player needs to go turn off for ten minutes, or send him off (red card) and also the player has to go off for the rest of the game.

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If the ball goes the end of the ar of play (or right into touch), a touch referee signals and also play stops. The video game restarts with a line-out (see right) in which 2 lines that players, one from each team, stand beside each other at right-angles come the touchline. The ball is climate thrown in indigenous the touchline, and also the team that gets it deserve to then begin a new attack. Unless the ball goes out of play, or a penalty is awarded, play continues without stopping until somebody scores. After a team scores, a player native the non-scoring team takes a drop absent from the center of the halfway line to restart the game. Play proceeds until the referee signal the end of the match, through the team having scored the many points gift the winner.

Tournaments

The sport"s most crucial tournament is The Rugby world Cup. It"s organized every four years and also is one of the world"s greatest sporting events. The winners are awarded the william Webb Ellis Cup, named after among the 3 boys in ~ Rugby school that you read about above. Due to the fact that the very first World Cup was won by new Zealand in 1987, 24 nations have competed in the event, through Australia win in 1991, southern Africa in 1995, Australia again in 1999, England in 2003, and South Africa again in 2007.

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Famous Player

Jonah Lomu

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One the the greatest sights in sporting history has to have actually been that of the huge body of new Zealand large Jonah Lomu, ball tucked like a child"s toy under an arm, as he raced in the direction of the try line in ~ the speed of one Olympic sprinter, with would-be tacklers, themselves vast men, helpless to stop him as they lay in his wake up after having been fended off quickly with a single straight-arm support to the chest. Jonah to be born in brand-new Zealand in 1975, and by the age of 20 he was 1.97 m tall (6 ft 6 in) and also weighed 119 kg (260 lb/18.7 st). And also he can run 100 metres in 10.89 seconds! Rugby fans to be amazed as soon as he an initial came top top the international stage throughout the 1995 people Cup in southern Africa. That scored 7 tries in 5 matches, including four in the semi-final against England. In the 1999 Rugby people Cup he scored eight more tries, do a record full of fifteen civilization Cup tries, an ext than any kind of other player had actually scored in ~ the time. Jonah Lomu was inducted right into the worldwide Rugby room of call in 2007 and also he will long be psychic as one of the most amazing rugby players of all time.