What is file Chromatography?

Paper chromatography (PC) is a kind of planar chromatography by which chromatography procedures are operation on a committed paper.

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PC is considered to be the simplest and also most widely used of the chromatographic techniques since of that applicability come isolation, identification, and quantitative decision of organic and inorganic compounds.

It was an initial introduced by German scientist Christian Friedrich Schonbein (1865).


Steps in record Chromatography

In record chromatography, the sample mixture is applied to a piece of filter paper, the edge of the paper is immersed in a solvent, and the solvent moves up the paper by capillary action. The simple steps include:

Selection of solid Support

Fine top quality cellulose record with characterized porosity, high resolution, negligible diffusion of the sample, and favoring good rate of movement of solvent.

selection of cell phone Phase

Different combinations of organic and inorganic solvents might be used depending upon the analyte.

Example. Butanol: Acetic acid: Water (12:3:5) is a an ideal solvent because that separating amino acids.

Saturation of Tank

The inner wall of the tank is wrapped through filter record before the solvent is placed in the tank come achieve much better resolution.

Sample Preparation and Loading

If the hard sample is used, the is dissolved in a an ideal solvent. Sample (2-20ul) is added on the baseline as a spot using a micropipette and also air dried to prevent the diffusion.

breakthrough of the chromatogram

Sample loaded filter document is dipped carefully into the solvent not much more than a elevation of 1 cm and waited until the solvent prior reaches close to the sheet of the paper.

Different varieties of advancement techniques can be used:


Like typical type, the solvent flows versus gravity.The spots are maintained at the bottom part of record and retained in a chamber with mobile phase solvent in ~ the bottom.


This is brought out in a distinct chamber whereby the solvent holder is in ~ the top.The point out is maintained at the top and the solvent flows down the paper.In this an approach solvent moves from peak to bottom so the is referred to as descending chromatography.


A hybrid of above two techniques is dubbed ascending-descending chromatography.Only length of separation increased, first ascending takes place followed by descending.

CIRCULAR / RADIAL development

Spot is maintained at the centre of a circular paper.The solvent flows with a wick at the center & spreads in every directions uniformly.

Drying of Chromatogram

After the development, the solvent former is significant and left to dried in a dried cabinet or oven.


Colorless analytes were detected through staining v reagents such together iodine vapor, ninhydrin, etc.

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Radiolabeled and fluorescently labeling analytes to be detected by measuring radioactivity and also fluorescence respectively.