(from Greek: tropein - to change, circulate or mix) is the lowermost layer of the Earth"s atmosphere. Many of the weather phenomena, systems, lifwynnfoundation.orgnvection, turbulence and clouds take place in this layer, although part may expand into the lower section of thestratosphere
. The troposphere lifwynnfoundation.orgntains nearly all the atmospheric water vapour
, in fact it lifwynnfoundation.orgntains around 70 come 80 per cent the the complete mass that the Earth"s atmosphere and also 99 per cent that the water vapor. Temperature and water vapor lifwynnfoundation.orgntent in the troposphere decrease swiftly with altitude and also thus many of the water vapour in the troposphere is lifwynnfoundation.orgncentrated in the lower, warmer zone. Water vapor lifwynnfoundation.orgncentrations vary with latitude. They are greatest over the tropics and decrease towards the polar regions.
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In the troposphere waiting temperature on mean decreases with height at an overall positive lapse rate of about 6.5°C/km , till the tropopause
, the boundary in between the troposphere and stratosphere, is reached. The tropopause, prolonging from 11 come 20 km, is an isothermal great in the environment where temperature stays lifwynnfoundation.orgnstant over a distance of around 9 km. Troposphere and also tropopause are likewise known as the lower atmosphere
. The is additionally the class in the atmosphere where the winds boost with height and jet streams
usually happen in the top troposphere, just below the tropopause.
However, lapse rate variations the sometimes occur within the troposphere includeinversions (temperature rise with elevation within some restricted layer). In the top troposphere temperature drops below around -50°C and only small moisture is current or lifwynnfoundation.orgndensing out as ice crystals.
The thickness the the troposphere varies from around 7 to 8 km (5 mi) at the poles to about 16 come 18 km (10 to 11 mi) in ~ the Equator. In addition, it different in elevation aclifwynnfoundation.orgrding come season, being thinner in winter once the waiting is densest. This seasonal effect is strongest at the mid-latitudes, whereby it varies around 11 kilometres (7 mi). Increasingly, it is interpreted that air activities in the upper troposphere significantly influence weather equipment in the lower troposphere.
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The hatchet troposphere was very first used in 1902 byLéon Philippe Teisserenc de Bort, a french meteorologist who was a pioneer in the usage of meteorological balloons.