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Rocks are created on planet as igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks. Igneous rocks form when rocks space heated come the melting suggest which develops magma. Sedimentary rocks are formed from the cementing together of sediments, or native the compaction (squeezing together) of sediments, or from the recrystallization of brand-new mineral seed which are bigger than the original crystals. Metamorphic rocks type from heat and also pressure transforming the initial or parent rock into a completely new rock. The parent rock have the right to be either sedimentary, igneous, or even another metamorphic rock. The word "metamorphic" originates from Greek and method "To readjust Form".

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The diagram over shows you just how the rocks on earth have been adjusted continually in time from one rock kind to another. This transforming of rock types is dubbed the "Rock Cycle".


Solid rock can be changed into a new rock by stresses that cause an increase in heat and also pressure. There space 3 main agents that reason metamorphism. Determinants that cause an increase in Temperature, Pressure, and Chemical transforms are the 3 agents that we space going come study.

Temperature increases deserve to be resulted in by great of sediments being buried deeper and deeper under the surface ar of the Earth. As we descend into the earth the temperature increases about 25 levels Celsius for every kilometre that us descend. The depth the layers are hidden the name is the temperature become. The an excellent weight of this layers likewise causes rise in pressure, i beg your pardon in turn, causes rise in temperature.




The descending of absent layers at subduction zones causes metamorphism in two ways; the shearing impact of the key sliding previous each other causes the rocks comes in contact with the descending rocks to change. Several of the diminish rock will certainly melt as such friction. As soon as rock melts the is then taken into consideration igneous no metamorphic, yet the rock alongside the melted rock deserve to be readjusted by the heat and become a metamorphic rock. The diagram over shows you where metamorphic rock (YELLOW ZONE) can be developed at a subduction zone.

There are 3 factors that cause boost in press which additionally causes the formation of metamorphic rocks. These factors are;


The large weight of overlying layers of sediments.


Stresses brought about by plates colliding in the process of mountain building.


Stresses led to by plates sliding previous each other, such as the shearing stresses in ~ the mountain Andreas fault zone in California.

Factors that reason chemical changes in rocks likewise contribute to the development of metamorphic rocks. An extremely hot fluids and also vapors can, due to the fact that of extreme pressures, fill the pores of existing rocks. These fluids and vapors can cause chemical reaction to take place, the over time, can readjust the chemistry makeup that the parent rock.

Metamorphism deserve to be instantaneous together in the shearing that rocks in ~ plate limits or have the right to take millions of years together in the slow cooling the magma buried deep under the surface ar of the Earth.


There are three ways that metamorphic rocks deserve to form. The three species of metamorphism space Contact, Regional, and also Dynamic metamorphism.

Contact Metamorphism occurs as soon as magma comes in contact with an already existing body of rock. Once this wake up the currently rocks temperature rises and also becomes infiltrated with liquid from the magma. The area impacted by the call of magma is usually small, native 1 to 10 kilometers. Contact metamorphism to produce non-foliated (rocks without any cleavage) rocks such as marble, quartzite, and hornfels.




In the diagram above magma has pushed its way into layers of limestone, quartz sandstone and shale. The heat generated by the magma room has readjusted these sedimentary rocks right into the metamorphic rocks marble, quartzite, an hornfels.

Regional Metamorphism occurs over a much larger area. This metamorphism produce rocks such together gneiss and also schist. Regional metamorphism is resulted in by big geologic processes such as mountain-building. This rocks as soon as exposed to the surface present the unbelievable pressure that reason the rocks to it is in bent and broken through the mountain structure process. Regional metamorphism usually produces foliated rocks such as gneiss and also schist.

Dynamic Metamorphism additionally occurs due to the fact that of mountain-building. These huge forces the heat and pressure cause the rocks to be bent, folded, crushed, flattened, and also sheared.


Metamorphic rocks are nearly always harder than sedimentary rocks. They are normally as hard and sometimes harder 보다 igneous rocks. They kind the root of numerous mountain chains and are exposed to the surface ar after the softer outer layers that rocks are eroded away. Plenty of metamorphic rocks are found in mountainous regions today and are a an excellent indicator that ancient mountains were current in locations that are now low hill or even flat plains. Metamorphic rocks are separated into 2 categories- Foliates and also Non-foliates.




Foliates space composed of large amounts of micas and also chlorites. These minerals have an extremely distinct cleavage. Foliated metamorphic rocks will break-up along cleavage currently that are parallel to the mineral that comprise the rock. Slate, together an example, will separation into slim sheets. Foliate originates from the Latin indigenous that means sheets, as in the sheets of file in a book.


Silt and clay can end up being deposited and also compressed right into the sedimentary absent shale. The layers of shale can come to be buried deeper and deeper by the procedure of deposition. Deposition is the laying under of rock forming material by any natural agent (wind, water, glaciers) over time. Since these layers space buried, temperatures and also pressures become greater and also greater until the shale is adjusted into slate. Slate is a fine-grained metamorphic rock v perfect cleavage that permits it to break-up into thin sheets. Slate usually has a light to dark brown streak. Slate is developed by low grade metamorphism, i m sorry is led to by reasonably low temperatures and also pressures.




Slate has been used by man in a selection of methods over the years. One usage for slate was in the do of headstones or dig markers. Slate is not very hard and also can be carved easily. The difficulty with slate though is the perfect cleavage. The slate headstones would certainly crack and split follow me these cleavage planes together water would seep into the cracks and also freeze which would bring about expansion. This freeze-thaw, freeze-thaw with time would break-up the headstone. This particular day headstones room made the a selection of rocks, through granite and marble being two of the many widely offered rocks. Slate was also used for chalk boards. The black color was great as a background and the absent cleaned conveniently with water. This particular day it is not very advantageous to use this rock due to the fact that of the weight and also the splitting and cracking end time.



Schist is a tool grade metamorphic rock. This way that it has been subjected to much more heat and pressure than slate, i beg your pardon is a short grade metamorphic rock. As you have the right to see in the photo above schist is a more coarse grained rock. The individual seed of minerals have the right to be seen by the naked eye. Many of the original minerals have been altered into flakes. Because it has been squeezed harder than slate that is often discovered folded and crumpled. Schists room usually named by the key minerals the they are formed from. Bitotite mica schist, hornblende schist, garnet mica schist, and talc schist room some examples of this.




Gneiss is a high grade metamorphic rock. This way that gneiss has actually been subjected to more heat and also pressure 보다 schist. Gneiss is coarser than schist and has distinctive banding. This banding has alternative layers that are composed of different minerals. The mineral that compose gneiss are the very same as granite. Feldspar is the most vital mineral that renders up gneiss along with mica and quartz. Gneiss can be created from a sedimentary rock such as sandstone or shale, or it have the right to be developed from the metamorphism the the igneouse rock grantite. Gneiss can be used by guy as paving and building stone.




Non-Foliates are metamorphic rocks that have no cleavage at all. Quartzite and marble room two instances of non-foliates the we are going come study.


Quartzite is created of sandstone that has been metamorphosed. Quartzite is much harder 보다 the parental rock sandstone. It develops from sandstone that has actually come into contact with deeply buried magmas. Quartzite looks comparable to its parent rock. The best means to call quartzite indigenous sandstone is to rest the rocks. Sandstone will shatter into many individual grains of sand if quartzite will break throughout the grains.



Marble is metamorphosed limestone or dolomite. Both limestone and dolomite have actually a huge concentration the calcium lead carbonate (CaCO3). Marble has countless different sizes of crystals. Marble has actually many shade variances because of the impurities present at formation. Few of the various colors the marble space white, red, black, mottled and also banded, gray, pink, and green.

Marble is much harder than its parental rock. This enables it to take a polish which makes it a an excellent material for use as a structure material, make sink tops, bathtubs, and also a carving rock for artists. Today, headstones room made indigenous marble and also granite due to the fact that both of these rocks weather an extremely slowly and also carve well through sharp edges.

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Marble is quarried in Vermont, Tennessee, Missouri, Georgia, and also Alabama.


Write the answers to the adhering to questions in finish sentences top top a item of paper.