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(a) heavy O2 has a fixed volume and shape, and the molecules room packed strictly together. (b) liquid O2 conforms come the form of that container yet has a resolved volume; that contains relatively densely pack molecules. (c) gas O2 fills its container completely—regardless of the container’s dimension or shape—and consists of commonly separated molecules.

The state that a given substance counts strongly on conditions. For example, H2O is commonly found in all three states: hard ice, liquid water, and water vapor (its gaseous form). Under most conditions, we encounter water together the liquid that is vital for life; us drink it, chef with it, and bathe in it. Once the temperature is cold enough to transform the fluid to ice, we deserve to ski or ice skating on it, pack it into a snowball or snow cone, and even construct dwellings with it. Water vaporThe distinction between a gas and also a vapor is subtle: the hatchet vapor refers to the gaseous type of a substance that is a fluid or a solid under normal problems (25°C, 1.0 atm). Nitrogen (N2) and also oxygen (O2) are hence referred to as gases, but gaseous water in the environment is called water vapor. Is a component of the air us breathe, and also it is created whenever we warm water for food preparation food or make coffee or tea. Water vapor in ~ temperatures higher than 100°C is dubbed steam. Heavy steam is supplied to drive huge machinery, consisting of turbines that create electricity. The properties of the three states of water room summarized in Table 10.1.1

Table 10.1.1 nature of Water in ~ 1.0 atm

Temperature State thickness (g/cm3)
≤0°C solid (ice) 0.9167 (at 0.0°C)
0°C–100°C liquid (water) 0.9997 (at 4.0°C)
≥100°C vapor (steam) 0.005476 (at 127°C)

The geometric structure and the physical and lifwynnfoundation.orgical nature of atoms, ions, and molecules usually execute not count on your physical state; the individual water molecule in ice, fluid water, and steam, for example, space all identical. In contrast, the macroscopic properties of a substance depend strongly on its physics state, which is established by intermolecular forces and also conditions such together temperature and pressure.

Figure 10.1.2 mirrors the places in the regular table that those elements that are generally found in the gaseous, liquid, and also solid states. Other than for hydrogen, the facets that take place naturally together gases space on the ideal side of the regular table. The these, all the noble gases (group 18) room monatomic gases, conversely, the various other gaseous elements are diatomic molecules (H2, N2, O2, F2, and also Cl2). Oxygen can also kind a 2nd allotrope, the extremely reactive triatomic molecule ozone (O3), i beg your pardon is additionally a gas. In contrast, bromine (as Br2) and also mercury (Hg) room liquids under normal conditions (25°C and 1.0 atm, generally referred to together “room temperature and pressure”). Gallium (Ga), which melts at just 29.76°C, can be converted to a liquid simply by hold a container of the in her hand or keeping it in a non-air-conditioned room on a warm summer day. The rest of the aspects are all solids under typical conditions.

Figure 10.1.2 aspects That happen Naturally as Gases, Liquids, and Solids in ~ 25°C and also 1 atm

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