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Fragmentation n., plural: fragmentations <ˌfræɡmɛnˈteɪʃən> Definition: breaking into smaller parts, as in asexual reproduction within a parent organism breaks into fragments


Fragmentation Definition

What is fragmentation? In general, fragmentation describes the state or the process of breaking into smaller parts, referred to as fragments. In biology, it might refer come the reproductive fragmentation process as a form of asexual reproduction or to a step in certain cellular activities, such together apoptosis and also DNA cloning.

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Fragmentation (biology definition): (1) a type of asexual reproduction wherein a parent organism breaks right into fragments, each qualified of growing independently into a brand-new organism, (2) breaking into smaller components or fragments. Synonyms: spallation.

Fragmentation in Reproductive Biology

Let us find out just how fragmentation is identified in reproductive biology. The process of fragmentation is one of the most vital mechanisms the mostly occur in a multicellular organism (i.e. The organism that is made up of much more than a single cell). In Reproductive Biology, fragmentation describes the process by which a living organism break-up into parts that later thrive identical come the original organism. The various bodies or components that room formed as result of such a process are described as fragments and also exemplifies asexual reproduction.

In fragmentation, the fragments are formed because of the splitting of assorted living organisms. Each of the created fragments ~ going with the bicycle of growth develops into a mature, fully-grown individual the is the same to its parent v respect to shape, size, and other dimensions. (Ref. 1)

The key characteristic that the procedure of fragmentation is that this procedure can take place both intentionally and also unintentionally. Because that instance, man-made causes or environmental transforms may cause the organism to fragment and also eventually build into complete and mature organisms the are comparable to the parent.

Fragmentation is found in both animals and also plants. Fungi, lichens, molds, worms, sea stars, acoel flatworms, and sponges are few of the common examples whereby the setting of reproduction wake up via fragmentation. The image listed below shows the fragmentation in a starfish. It can be checked out that the fragmenting body gets separated indigenous the arm of the starfish and after part time it starts occurring into a brand-new starfish as watched in number 1.

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Figure 1: Fragmentation in starfish. Credit: OpenStax

Fragmentation and also splitting

The process of fragmentation is indeed the procedure of wrong of one organism right into various fragments that gradually get occurred into a finish organism. Thus, this process is additionally referred to together the procedure of splitting.

Process the reproduction

The biological process by which brand-new individuals/organisms are formed from the parents is called reproduction. Sexual and also asexual space the two develops of reproduction that are extensively studied by plenty of researchers. The procedure by i beg your pardon the offspring room born because of the adjustment of 2 parents is referred to as sexual reproduction. Each of the parental contributes an egg native a female and a sperm indigenous a male and after the combination of these two gametes with the procedure of fertilization, a zygote is developed that matures into an embryo and also finally right into a fully-grown organism. Allogamy, interior fertilization, outside fertilization, and also autogamy are few of the species of sex-related reproduction. The process of sexual reproduction has been elaborated in number 2.

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Figure 2: sex-related reproduction is a mode of reproduction involving the blend of haploid female and male gametes. The combination of these gametes wake up at fertilization resulting in the development of a diploid zygote. Credit: Stannered, CC BY-SA 3.0.

The process by i m sorry the bike of reproduction is completed by just one parent is called asexual reproduction. Examples incorporate binary fission, budding, fragmentation, and parthenogenesis. The procedure of binary fission is found in bacteria within a single bacterium often tends to divide into two cells. In budding, very small organs are formed in the bodies of the parent and thus after some time, they often tend to break and thus ultimately grow into two individuals. This type of asexual reproduction is found in yeasts and some various other hydra animals. (Ref. 2) In fragmentation, reproduction occurs via the not correct of the parent organism right into various fragments that have actually the capacity to thrive identical to their parents. That is commonly found in coral, sponges, and starfishes. In parthenogenesis, this kind of asexual reproduction is discovered in plenty of fishes, reptiles, and amphibians.

For comparisons between sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction, check out the Table below:

Table 1: Sexual and Asexual Reproduction Comparison

sex-related Reproduction Asexual Reproduction
Two parents are involved A single parent is involved
An egg is fertilized through sperms The new organism is created from the parent and also both of lock are the same to each other
Found in humans, plenty of plants, and also many animals Found in bacteria, reptiles, particular animals, and many plants
The offspring are different from their parents in numerous main aspects The offspring are identical to your parents and ancestors
Process is time-consuming however with leader to greater hereditary variations in the following generation Process is relatively faster yet there space no/limited genetic variations in the next generation

Fragmentation – general Steps

The process of fragmentation is very an important in biology because that asexual reproduction. As described earlier, this is the kind of reproduction in which small organs or components of the body of the parent individual gain separated and finally grows into a totally mature organism. Let united state take an example of Planaria, among the plenty of flatworms, belonging come the class of Rhabditophora and phylum Platyhelminthes. See number 3 for the relenten of fragmentation and also the step involved during fragmentation in Planaria.

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Figure 3: The body of the biology is separation into smaller sized organs or a part of the body dissociates indigenous the parent body. Then, the pieces start cultivation into a tires organism. After ~ the development cycle is completed, the new organisms will be identical to the parent. Credit: Shilpa Nagpal, Classnotes.org.in

Fragmentation and also Regeneration

The native fragmentation and regeneration are frequently referred to together the words offered in reproduction. Still, there are some usual differences between them the are quite evident. The procedure of fragmentation regularly occurs once a component of an biology is damaged into smaller pieces that can prosper into separate similar organisms whereas rebirth is one in which the biology is qualified to regrow details body components that room lost. In essence, brand-new species are formed complying with fragmentation whereas brand-new organs space formed during regeneration. The is thought all biology are capable of regenerating their shed body parts while over there are just a few that have the capacity to reproduce through fragmentation. The procedure of regeneration deserve to be found in lizards and also octopi. The details the fragmentation and also regeneration can be uncovered in number 4. (Ref. 3)

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Figure 4: Fragmentation and Regeneration Source: Maria Victoria Gonzaga, lifwynnfoundation.org


Fragmentation – Advantages

The prime advantage of fragmentation is the it have the right to be completed with just a solitary parent together mating between a male and a female is no mandatory. The totality cycle the reproduction can conveniently be completed by the formation of the fragments from the bodies of the parent organism and then your growth and transformations into brand-new identical biology to your dynasties. The second important benefit of the process of fragmentation is that its reproduction cycle have the right to be completed in a fairly less quantity of time. The whole time that is wasted throughout the adjustment season and also conditions in the sex-related reproduction is avoided in the reproduction v asexual systems. Thus, fragmentation being a kind of asexual reproduction is a very rapid process. Moreover, since fragmentation is a an extremely fast process of producing offspring, that is thought that a reasonably larger variety of organisms can be created in a shorter time as the chain that reproduction goes from one individual to two and also from 2 to four. Hence, in much less time a whole new generation of identical organisms deserve to be developed from a single parent via fragmentation. Finally, another advantage that makes the procedure of fragmentation very an important in biological is its capability to occur and also progress in any type of environment and any climatic conditions. (Ref. 4)

Fragmentation – Disadvantages

Although it have the right to be perceived from the above discussion that asexual reproduction specifically fragmentation theatre a very an important role in keeping the equilibrium in the ecosystem by producing larger organisms in relatively less time but still over there are numerous disadvantages associated with this process. The significant disadvantage the fragmentation is linked with biodiversity.

Asexual reproduction is lugged out through a solitary parent and due come this only its traits, genes and also characteristics will be happen on to the new generation. There is no much genetic diversity, the following generation has tendency to be an extremely identical to each various other Conversely, in sex-related reproduction, two genes native both parents space mixed. This provides rise to genetically diverse offspring.

The second disadvantage of fragmentation is that the same heritage troubles that once discovered in the parents will most likely be manifesting in the following generation. This process arises all the time in asexual reproduction, the very same traits and chromosomes space copied and also transferred on every offspring. As a result, the offspring may be subjected to an early extinction because of some the the conditions that castle inherited.

Species developed via fragmentation tend to be identical. And so, weak in your bodies may make them vulnerable to parasitic and predator attacks. This might cause them to struggle to survive. If extr pressure come along, for instance, a sudden transition in the environment or habitat, the varieties could battle even much more and eventually might be eliminated and be extinct. In contrast, such troubles are much less likely to happen in sex-related reproductions since it promotes higher biodiversity.

In essence, fragmentation in biology carries difficulties with the manage in the populace as this is a chain process in i m sorry an organism divides into two and then one more two are formed from the fragments. This leader to the reproduction of enormous populations native a single parent.

“Organisms the reproduce asexually are breakable to extinction.” Hear much more from our Expert. Join our discussion:Advantages and disadvantages of asexual reproduction.


Examples the Fragmentation

The process of fragmentation is found in plants, animals, and diverse microscope organisms as a form of reproduction.

Fragmentation in fungi and algae

Fragmentation is very commonly viewed in both fungi and also lichens. Molds, yeasts, and also mushrooms are few of the types of fungi where reproduction is accomplished via asexual fragmentation. The special type of framework that is accomplished for the procedure of dividing is described as hyphae. They are the filamentous branches native which the mycelium the the mushroom is made. They room the branches the the mommy fungi from whereby they deserve to be detached easily and also transform themselves. Prior to the process of splitting, the hyphae thrive on the fungi from where they achieve the food and also water the are vital for growth and also nourishment. Once the hyphae are mature enough to feed on your own and also reproduce they detach indigenous the parental body and also live independently. Specific algae additionally reproduce by fragmentation. For example, filamentous algae, such as Spirogyra, blee by cutting themselves right into fragments.


Fragmentation in plants

The fragmentation in plants is most frequently described as the vegetative kind of fragmentation. In plants, largely the diameter of their colonies is enhanced by producing brand-new root and also shoot equipment via the dispersion the rhizomes or stolon from the old trees, shrubs, ferns, and perennials. Thus, as soon as the root is detached native the colony, it has tendency to flourish on its own thus providing rise to a fully new source system. Other usual examples of herbal fragmentation space as follows:

Woody plants, e.g. Willows, shed twigs rather effortlessly and also under the ideal environmental conditions may grow into a brand-new plant. This organic shedding of twigs is recognized as cladoptosis.
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Figure 5: pasture tree can reproduce asexually with shedding that is branches naturally (a procedure called cladoptosis). Source: modified by Maria Victoria Gonzaga, lifwynnfoundation.org, from the functions of Bruce Marlin (Willow tree photo), CC by 3.0, and also Dacrycarpus (detached Castilla tree branch), CC through 3.0. Detaching the plant components to come to be a new organism is also observed in non-woody plants, such as Kalanchoe daigremontiana. In the photograph below, notification the adventitious plantlets top top the sheet of K. Daigremontiana. The plantlets might drop off and subsequently take it root in the ground to become a new and independent plant.
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Figure 6: Kalanchoe daigremontiana plantlets ~ above leaf. Credit: Gmihail, CC BY-SA 3.0.


Fragmentation in Cell and Molecular Biology: definition and organic Importance

Let’s take it a look at the cellular level the the reproductive fragmentation process. DNA cloning describes the duplication of the DNA molecule — the creation of specific copy or a “clone” the DNA, specifically for asexual reproduction. Through herbal means, an organism creates identical DNA molecules for its “clone” (offspring). Words cloning below refers to the truth that the reproduced people exhibit identical DNA to that of their ancestors. This wake up at fragmentation. However, the is not an exclusive process as DNA cloning occurs in other creates of asexual reproduction as well, such as binary fission. Thus, DNA cloning is an important cellular procedure in asexual reproduction.

DNA cloning have the right to be completed both naturally as well as via man-made methods. Researcher made use of this procedure in laboratories because that research and also experimental studies. They came up v the so-called “DNA fragmentation” procedure, i beg your pardon is a molecular genetic technique that permits them to cleave and clone particular DNA pieces from an organism’s genome via recombinant DNA technology.

Apart native this molecular aspect of the usage of fragmentation, the ax is also used come describe another cellular process wherein cellular components undergo fragmentation. This is seen particularly in apoptosis. Apoptosis is the procedure in i beg your pardon the programmed destruction of cells occurs and also it is accomplished by a really organized sequence of morphological changes. Moreover, the morphological changes are identified by cellular and nuclear shrinkage, chromatin fragmentation and also condensation, the development of apoptotic bodies, and also the procedure of phagocytosis of every the available neighboring cells. Additionally, apoptosis entails the uniform endonucleases activations with the cleavages that DNA in the pieces of one of two people one hundred and eighty base pairs or the multiples that the one hundred and also eighty basic pairs. Thus, the relation in between apoptosis and also DNA fragmentation plays a very major role in maintaining cellular organization. The progression of cabinet apoptosis plays a vital role in conserving the healthy cells and tissues working in the human being body native the hazardous results of the cells the aren’t working stably and are in the process of dying.

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Figure 7: Fragmentation together a an essential step in apoptosis. Credit: smith et al., CC through 4.0.

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Summary

The biological process by i beg your pardon the organisms break-up into 2 or much more fragments to become brand-new individuals (offspring) is referred to as fragmentation. These fragments grow and mature right into a whole new generation with identical attributes to their parents. Fragmentation is additionally referred to as dividing in assorted literature and also are the synonyms of every other. The process of fragmentation is asexual, which way that just a single parent is involved. Therefore, the offspring most likely will lug the same hereditary characteristics. On the various other hand, the reproduction in i m sorry both male and also female parental are associated is recognized as sexual reproduction. Both species of reproduction have their pros and also cons.

Fragmentation occurs in 3 stages. The process begins v the formation of fragments. This is followed by the advancement of fragments, and also then, end at the switch of fragments into arisen species. The entirety cycle of asexual reproduction specifically fragmentation is of great biological importance. The formation of the same species, lesser time of reproduction, and also transfer of positive genes from parental to offspring are few of the crucial advantages of fragmentation whereas the lack of or the lessened genetic diversity, very same heritage problems, and unable to cope up through the environmental transforms are some of the flaw of it.

Fragmentation is additionally used come refer to certain cellular processes. Together fragmentation refers generally to the breaking or cutting of a big entity into smaller parts, the is used to pertain to cell procedures such as DNA fragmentation (occurring during DNA cloning) and also cell fragmentation, i m sorry is specifically the final stage that apoptosis.

The 2 main areas where fragmentation plays a very an essential role in organic cells are apoptosis and DNA cloning. In DNA cloning part of the genes room transferred from the key body to pieces whereas, in apoptosis, the degeneration of dead cell occurs.

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