Carl Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), additionally known ~ his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, and also in English usually under the Latinized surname Carolus Linnaeus, the name v which his publications were signed, was a swedish botanist, physician, and also zoologist who laid the structures for the modern-day scheme the nomenclature. That is also considered one of the fathers of modern ecology. He is recognized as the "father of contemporary taxonomy."

Linnaeus do important, lasting contribute to biology. However, his work also had social implications beyond that of taxonomic principles. Linnaeus"s category of humans as primates, and also identification of their species name as homo sapiens (wise man), rather than one more epithet, guided scientific research in a course deviating from one integrated with a more religious view. Linnaeus himself noted that he could not find a generic difference between humans and primates in accordance with organic history. Linnaeus"s division of people according to race, including based upon perceived social and emotional attributes, would likewise have social implications.

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Linnaeus" surname comes in various variants: "Carl Linnaeus," "Carolus Linnaeus," and also "Carl von Linné," and sometimes simply "Carl Linné." there is regularly confusion around his actual (Swedish) name, together opposed to the Latinized type "Carolus Linnaeus" the he used many when he published his clinical works (in Latin).

In Linnaeus" time, most Swedes had no surnames. Linnaeus" grandfather was called Ingemar Bengtsson (son of Bengt), according to Scandinavian tradition. Linnaeus" father was recognized as Nils Ingemarsson (son of Ingemar). Only for it is registered purposes, for example when matriculating at a university, one essential a surname. In the academic world, Latin to be the language that choice, so once Linnaeus" father saw the university of Lund, he coined self a Latin surname: Linnaeus, referring to a large linden (lime) tree on the family property Linnagård (linn gift a now obsolete variant of sweden lind, the linden). Nils Ingemarsson offered his child the name Carl. Therefore the Swedish surname of the young was Carl Linnaeus (Stearn 1992).

When Carl Linnaeus enrolled together a college student at the college of Lund, he to be registered as "Carolus Linnaeus." This Latinized type was the name he offered when he released his functions in Latin. After ~ he to be ennobled in 1761 (Stearn 1957), he take it the name Carl von Linné. "Linné" is a shortened version of "Linnaeus" and also "von" is included to signify his being considered nobility.

When introduce to or citing the author Linnaeus, the is ideal to use "Carl Linnaeus," "Carolus Linnaeus," or simply "Linnaeus." "Carl von Linné" appears to be much less suitable, particularly for the functions he published prior to 1762. ~ above the title page of the second edition of varieties plantarum (1762), the author"s surname is still printed as "Carolus Linnaeus" (or rather the genitive form "Caroli Linnaei"), however from then on, his surname is rather consistently published as "Carolus a Linne" or "Carl von Linné." Stafleu uses "Carl Linnaeus" as the author"s name for every his works.

The adjective the his surname is generally "Linnaean," however the prestigious Linnean society of London has a newspaper The Linnean, and also awards the Linnean Medal.


Linnaeus was born on a farm on may 23, 1707. The farm yard was referred to as Råshult and was located in Älmhult Municipality in the district of Småland in southern Sweden. Like his father and maternal grandfather, Linnaeus was groomed together a youth to it is in a churchman, yet he showed tiny enthusiasm because that it. His interest in botany impressed a physician from his town and also he was sent out to study at Lund University, transferring to Uppsala college after one year.

Linnaeus had actually been impression by what he read around the stamens and also pistils of flower as sex-related organs. At Uppsala, he wrote a short work on the subject that earned the a position at the botanical Gardens.


In 1732, the Academy of scientific researches at Uppsala sponsor his expedition to check out Lapland, then essentially unknown. The result of this to be firstly The Florula Lapponica, and later the Flora Lapponica, published in 1737.

In 1735, Linnaeus relocated to the continent. In the Netherlands, he earned his one and only academic degree. He likewise met january Frederik Gronovius and also showed that a breeze of his work-related on taxonomy, the Systema Naturae. This was published in the Netherlands the exact same year, together an 11-page work.

By the time it got to its tenth edition (1758), the Systema Naturae included classifications of 4,400 species of animals and 7,700 varieties of plants. In it, the unwieldy names largely used at the time, such as "Physalis amno ramosissime ramis angulosis glabris foliis dentoserratis," were supplemented v concise and now familiar "binomials," written of the generic name, followed by a certain epithet, such together Physalis angulata. These binomials could serve as a brand to refer to the species. Greater taxa were constructed and also arranged in a basic and orderly manner. Although the system, now known as binomial nomenclature, was emerged by the Bauhin brothers (Gaspard Bauhin and also Johann Bauhin) practically two century earlier, Linnaeus to be the first to usage it consistently, and also may be said to have actually popularized it in ~ the scientific community.

Linnaeus called taxa in means that personally to win him together commonsense; because that example, people are homo sapiens (wise man). He also briefly defined a 2nd human species, Homo troglodytes ("cave-dwelling man"). This was, however, most likely a man originating from exaggerated second- or third-hand account of the chimpanzee (currently most often placed in a different genus, together Pan troglodytes). The group "mammalia" are called for their mammary glands. Not just is this a defining attributes of mammals, yet it has been stated to originate from Linnaeus"s very own advocacy the mothers" breastfeeding their very own children; Linnaeus self authored a book on the issue (Marks 1997).

In 1739, in ~ the age of 32, Linnaeus married Sara Morea, daughter the a physician. The ascended come the chair of medicine at Uppsala two years later, soon exchanging it because that the chair the Botany. He continued to job-related on his classifications, expanding them come the kingdom of animals and the kingdom that minerals. The last might seem rather odd, but the theory of evolution was still a long time away, and also Linnaeus was just attempting a convenient way of categorizing the elements of the herbal world.

Linnaeus" research study had begun to take science on a path that diverged from what had been taught by religious authorities; the local Lutheran Archbishop had actually accused that of "impiety." In a letter <1> to Johann Georg Gmelin, date February 25, 1747, Linnaeus wrote:

Original Latin

Non placet, quod Hominem inter antropomorpha collocaverim, sed homo noscit se ipsum. Removeamus vocabula. Mihi perinde erit, quo nomine utamur. Sed quaero a dare et Toto orbe differentiam genericam inter hominem et Simiam, quae ex principiis Historiae naturalis. Ego certissime nullam novi. Utinam aliquis mihi unicam diceret! Si vocassem hominem simiam vel vice versa omnes in me conjecissem theologos. Debuissem forte ex lege artis.

An English translation

It is no pleasing that I placed humans amongst the primates, yet man to know himself. Permit us get the words out of the way. It will certainly be same to me by every little thing name they space treated. However I questioning you and the whole human being a generic difference in between men and also simians in accordance with the values of natural History. I absolutely know none. If only someone would certainly tell me one! If I referred to as man an ape or angry versa ns would lug together all the theologians versus me. Perhaps I ought to scientifically,

The sweden king Adolf Fredrik ennobled Linnaeus in 1757, and after the Privy board of directors had confirmed the conferring that nobility, Linnaeus took the surname von Linné, later frequently signing just Carl Linné.

Declining in health and wellness his later years, Linnaeus suffered from a collection of strokes in 1774. He passed away four years later, in 1778.

Linnaean taxonomy


Taxonomists, in nearly any organic field, have actually heard the Carolus Linnaeus. His two prime contribute were: (1) to create conventions because that the naming of life organisms utilizing binomial nomenclature (the genus name followed by the species name), and also (2) developing an ordered system for category of organisms. Linnaeus" conventions would end up being universally welcomed in the scientific world.

Regarding the 2nd contribution, during the good eighteenth century growth of natural history knowledge, Linnaeus emerged what ended up being known together the Linnaean taxonomy. The Linnaean device classified nature in ~ a hierarchy, starting with Kingdoms together the most all encompassing level. Kingdoms were split into Classes and also they, in turn, into Orders, i beg your pardon were divided into Genera (singular: genus), which were separated into species (singular: species). Below the rank of species, Linnaeus sometimes well-known taxa the a reduced (unnamed) rank. (For plants, these space now called "varieties.")

Though the Linnaean system of scientific group has proven robust, and also is now widely offered in the organic sciences, the growth of knowledge has led to advance of the variety of hierarchical levels within the mechanism (phyla, family, subclasses, etc.) and also there has actually been boost in the governmental requirements that the device (see universal Codes.) However, it continues to be the only extant working group system at present that enjoys universal clinical acceptance. Among the later on subdivisions that have emerged are together entities as Phyla (singular: phylum), superclasses, subclasses, superorders, infarorders, families, superfamilies, and tribes. In newer systems, a domain level is inserted at the optimal of the system, above kingdom. Countless of the extra hierarchical levels have tendency to arise in self-controls such together entomology, whose subject matter has actually numerous types requiring classification. Any biological ar that is species rich, or i m sorry is topic to a review of the state of extant knowledge concerning those varieties and their relationships to each other, will certainly inevitably manipulate the added hierarchical levels. This is an especially true over there is integration of living organisms v fossils, and when over there is applications of newer group tools, such as cladistics.

Groups of biology at any kind of rank space now dubbed taxa (singular: taxon) or taxonomic groups.

Modern ecologists call the task of identifying and describing every living types the "Linnaean enterprise."

Linnaeus" groupings to be based upon mutual physical characteristics. Although just his groupings for animals remain come this day, and the groupings themselves, as well as the underlying principles, have actually been significantly adjusted since Linnaeus" conception, Linnaeus is attributed with developing the idea of a hierarchical structure of group that is based ~ above observable characteristics. The details concerning what are taken into consideration to it is in scientifically valid "observable characteristics" has adjusted with widening knowledge. For example, DNA sequencing, unavailable in Linnaeus" time, has proven to be a device of considerable utility because that classifying living organisms and also establishing their relationships to each other. However, the basic principles remain sound.

To some extent, Linnaeus also pioneered the division of human beings according come "race," a principle that was not widely employed throughout history, where civilization were much more often divided according to culture, religion, customs, and also other such features. In ~ Homo sapiens, Linnaeus proposed four taxa of a reduced rank: Americanus, Asiaticus, Africanus, and also Europeanus. These categories were based upon place of origin at first, and also later skin color. Conversely, Linnaeus provided some physical features in his division, he likewise wandered into attributing qualities according to his perceived view that social and emotional features. Among the numerous attributes he recognized, native Americans were taken into consideration to it is in reddish, stubborn, merry, and also angered easily; afri were black, relaxed, crafty, and negligent; Asians were sallow, avaricious, and easily distracted; and also Europeans were white, gentle, and inventive (Smedley 1993). He additionally divided them by how he believed they were governed: through customs, caprice, opinions, and also laws. Linnaeus"s gyeongju were clearly skewed in donate of Europeans. Linnaeus thought about these varieties of people within the very same species.

In addition, in Amoenitates academicae (1763), Linnaeus made a further extrapolation, specifying Homo anthropomorpha as a catch-all gyeongju for a range of human-like mythological creatures, including the troglodyte, satyr, hydra, and phoenix. He asserted that not only did these creatures actually exist, however were, in reality, inaccurate descriptions of real-world, ape-like creatures. Furthermore, in Systema Naturæ, Linnaeus characterized Homo ferus together "four-footed, mute, hairy." It had the subraces Juvenis lupinus hessensis (wolf-boys), whom he thought were elevated by animals, and Juvenis hannoveranus (Peter of Hanover) and Puella campanica (Wild-girl that Champaigne). He similarly defined Homo monstrosous as agile and also fainthearted, and also included in this race the Patagonian giant, the dwarf the the Alps, and the monorchid Hottentot.

Other accomplishments


Linnaeus is considered one that the ideal writers of swedish prose. His take trip journals contain pithy notes on everything of interest he encountered, not just plants. He did not simply write from personal interest, however as a reporter to the enlightened scientific and also political public. His trip to sub-Arctic Lapland is remarkable for exotic and adventurous episodes. He likewise composed part down-to-earth sex-instruction lectures released as "Om sättet att tillhopa gå" .Linnaeus" initial botanical garden might still be seen in Uppsala.Linnaeus was one of the co-founder of the royal Swedish Academy that Sciences.Linnaeus was among the pioneers in the ar of chronobiology, and also created the "Petal Time Clock." His findings discovered that different types of flowers open at different times everyday. For example, he discovered that the hawksbeard plant, opened up its flowers at 6:30 a.m., whereas an additional species, the hawkbit, go not open up its flowers till 7 a.m. After much research into this, he quickly concluded that one might tell the time of day just by city hall the flower in your garden.


Stearn, W. T. 1957. An arrival to the species Plantarum and cognate botanical functions of Carl Linnaeus. In C. Linnaeus. Species Plantarum. A facsimile that the first edition 1753. Vol. 1, pp. 1–176. London: beam Society.

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