Carmelization is just one of the food browning processes, offered to give foodstuffs a desirable color, flavor, and also texture. That is additionally a procedure responsible for a scorched sugar odor or blackening that food.
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How Carmelization Works
Carmelization, prefer the Maillard reaction, is a kind of non-enzymatic browning. It occurs when foods containing a high concentration that carbohydrates room heated over a details temperature. The temperature in ~ which carmelization occurs relies on the form of sugar. The rate at i m sorry carmelization proceeds depends on the acidity or pH of the food. Carmelization occurs much more quickly in ~ neutral pH than under either acidic or alkaline conditions.
Note fructose has a reduced carmelization point than other sugars. Baked items made utilizing fructose brown much more readily 보다 those make using various other sugars and also often end up darker in color.
Carmelization Temperature of various SugarsSugar Temperaturefructose 110°C, 230°Fgalactose 160°C, 320°Fglucose 160°C, 320°Fsucrose (table sugar) 160°C, 320°Fmaltose 180°C, 356°F
Carmelization is a process and no a solitary chemical reaction. As it occurs, water is gotten rid of from the carbohydrate. Isomerization and polymerization climate take place. This is seen as melting, boiling, foaming, and also darkening that sugar.
Carmelization is used to do candies, caramel, ghee, carmelized onions, and also carmelized potatoes, among other foods. Foods that save both carbohydrates and proteins brown native a mix of carmelization and the Maillard reaction.
How Carmelization functions in Sugar
Regular table street or sucrose is the best-studied carbohydrate for the carmelization process. The proceeds in the complying with manner:The disaccharide sucrose division down right into the monosaccharides glucose and also fructose. This is dubbed a sucrose inversion.Condensation occurs, where the sugars shed water and also react through each other, forming difructose-anhydride.Further dehydration occurs. Aldoses isomerize come ketoses.Molecules fragment and also polymerize, creating the characteristics caramel color and browned street flavor associated with the process. The three main assets from sucrose carmelization are the dehydration product caramelan (C12H18O9) and two polymers, carmelen (C36H50O25) and caramelin (C125H188O80).
Carmelization commodities have different flavors from every other. Right here are some usual compounds:
Diacetyl: Diacetyl forms throughout the very first stages of caramelization. Diacetyl contributes a buttery or butterscotch flavor.Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF): Hydroxyacetylfuran (HAF) has a sweet aroma and flavor. Various other furans have actually a nutty flavor.Maltol: Maltol is the compound connected with the toasty flavor and also aroma the freshly baked bread.
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Esters and also Lactones: these compounds have actually a sweet flavor, storage of rum.