Density and certain Gravity space related ideas that are regularly confused. Thickness is identified as the proportion of the mass (weight) come volume the a substance. It is usually measured in grams per cubic centimeter, grams every milliliter, pounds per cubic foot or pounds every gallon, and is rather dependent top top temperature and, to a lesser extent, pressure. Details Gravity, top top the various other hand, is identified as the weight of a sample, in ~ a given temperature, split by the weight of the very same volume of water, in ~ the exact same temperature or a various specified temperature. Since specific Gravity is a ratio, it has actually no units, but it is dependent top top both the temperature of the substance and also the temperature of the water reference.

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Density and details Gravity are never ever the same, because Density has actually units and certain Gravity is dimensionless, however they room numerically equal when three problems are met: (1) thickness is measure in grams per cubic centimeter, grams per milliliter, or kilograms per liter; (2) thickness and details Gravity are measured in ~ the exact same temperature; and (3) the details Gravity is referenced to water at 4°C, wherein its thickness is an extremely close to 1 gram per cubic centimeter. The density of a substance may be calculated by multiplying the specific Gravity through the thickness of water in ~ the referral temperature.

There are also various arbitrary scales supplied to express certain Gravity. Among them is the Baumé scale, emerged by a French Chemist, Antoine Baumé, roughly the year 1800. It is used to express the details Gravity the liquids and involves 2 formulas, one for specific Gravities less than one, and also another for details Gravities greater than one. These two formulas are:

degrees Baumé (°Bé)=


Sp. Gr. In ~ 60°F/60°F

- 130 (Sp. Gr.

degrees Baumé (°Bé)=

145 -


Sp. Gr. At 60°F/60°F

(Sp. Gr. > 1)

Other common arbitrary scale for particular Gravity are levels API (American Petroleum Institute), or degrees Brix, a range used greatly in the sugar industry, wherein °Brix is equal to the sucrose content (weight percent) the sucrose syrups.

Specific heaviness of liquids is most conveniently measured utilizing a Hydrometer. For accurate results, however, care must be exercised to insure that measurements are made at the correct temperature, i.e., the temperature stated on the Hydrometer at which it was calibrated. Most Hydrometers space calibrated in ~ 60°F/60°F (15.6°C/15.6°C). Hydrometers space commercially obtainable to measure not only specific Gravity, but concentrations of specific solutions such as salt and also alcohol solutions, as well as °Brix, °API, and also other details Gravity scales. That is essential to remember that these Hydrometers are details to certain varieties of solutions and do not check out the concentrations of various other solutions directly.

RICCA CHEMICAL company uses a pycnometer to accurately measure the specific Gravity the our particular Gravity requirements (Group Nos. 2330, 2340, and 7992.110 - 7992.150). These standards room traceable to the nationwide Institute of requirements and technology (NIST) national standards of mass and temperature. Remedies of different particular Gravities and/or all set with various substances have the right to be custom manufactured to your specifications.


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