IDENTIFICATION

For to know purposes, you require be pertained to only v the more basic cloud types, which are split into four “families.” The family members are: high clouds, center clouds, short clouds, and clouds with extensive vertical development. The first three family members are additional classified according to the way they room formed. Clouds developed by vertical currents in stormy air are cumulus an interpretation accumulation or heap; lock are characterized by their lumpy, billowy appearance. Clouds created by the cooling the a steady layer space stratus definition stratified or layered; castle are identified by your uniform, sheet-like appearance.

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In addition to the above, the prefix nimbo or the suffix nimbus method raincloud. Thus, stratified clouds indigenous which rain is falling are nimbostratus. A heavy, ede cumulus form cloud which produces precipitation is a cumulonimbus. Clouds broken into fragments are often determined by including the suffix fractus; because that example, fragmentary cumulus is cumulus fractus.

HIGH CLOUDS

The high cloud household is cirriform and includes cirrus, cirrocumulus, and also cirrostratus. They space composed virtually entirely of ice crystals. The height of the bases of this clouds ranges from about 16,500 come 45,000 feet in middle latitudes. Numbers 45 with 47 space photographs of high clouds.

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FIGURE 45. CIRRUS. Cirrus space thin, feather-like ice decision clouds in spot or narrow bands. Bigger ice crystals often trail bottom in well-defined wisps dubbed “mares" tails.” Wispy, cirrus-like, these contain no far-reaching icing or turbulence. Dense, banded cirrus, which regularly are turbulent, are debated in thing 13.

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FIGURE 46. CIRROCUMULUS. Cirrocumulus room thin clouds, the individual elements appearing as little white flakes or spot of cotton. May contain extremely supercooled water droplets. Part turbulence and also icing.

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FIGURE 47. CIRROSTRATUS. Cirrostratus is a thin whitish cloud layer appearing like a paper or veil. Cloud facets are diffuse, occasionally partially striated or fibrous. Due to their ice crystal makeup, this clouds are associated with halos—large luminous circles surrounding the sun or moon. No turbulence and tiny if any kind of icing. The greatest difficulty flying in cirriform clouds is restriction come visibility. They deserve to make the strict use of tools mandatory.

MIDDLE CLOUDS

In the middle cloud family are the altostratus, altocumulus, and also nimbostratus clouds. These clouds are mostly water, much of which may be supercooled. The elevation of the bases of this clouds ranges from around 6,500 come 23,000 feet in center latitudes. Numbers 48 with 52 are photographs of middle clouds.

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FIGURE 48. ALTOCUMULUS. Altocumulus are composed the white or gray fancy layers or spot of hard cloud. The cloud facets may have a waved or roll-like appearance. Some turbulence and small amounts of icing.

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FIGURE 49. ALTOSTRATUS. Altostratus is a bluish veil or class of clouds. The is often connected with altocumulus and sometimes progressively merges into cirrostratus. The sun may be dimly visible through it. Tiny or no turbulence with moderate quantities of ice.

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FIGURE 50. ALTOCUMULUS CASTELLANUS. Altocumulus castellanus are center level convective clouds. They are defined by your billowing tops and comparatively high bases. They space a an excellent indication the mid-level instability. Turbulent turbulence with some icing.

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FIGURE 51. Was standing LENTICULAR ALTOCUMULUS CLOUDS. Was standing lenticular altocumulus clouds are developed on the crests the waves developed by barriers in the wind flow. The clouds show small movement, thus the name standing. Wind, however, can be quite solid blowing v such clouds. They are identified by their smooth, refined edges. The presence of this clouds is a good indication that very solid turbulence and should be avoided. Thing 9, “Turbulence,” further describes the definition of this cloud.

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FIGURE 52. NIMBOSTRATUS. Nimbostratus is a gray or dark substantial cloud layer, diffused by more or less consistent rain, snow, or ice pellets. This form is classified together a center cloud although it might merge into an extremely low stratus or stratocumulus. Very tiny turbulence, however can attitude a significant icing difficulty if temperatures are near or below freezing.

LOW CLOUDS

In the short cloud household are the stratus, stratocumulus, and fair weather cumulus clouds. Short clouds are virtually entirely water, but at times the water may be supercooled. Low clouds at sub-freezing temperatures can additionally contain snow and ice particles. The bases of these clouds variety from near the surface to about 6,500 feet in middle latitudes. Figures 53 v 55 are photographs of low clouds.

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FIGURE 53. STRATUS. Stratus is a gray, uniform, sheet-like cloud with reasonably low bases. When connected with fog or precipitation, the mix can become troublesome because that visual flying. Tiny or no turbulence, yet temperatures near or below freezing can create hazardous icing conditions.

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FIGURE 54. STRATOCUMULUS. Stratocumulus bases space globular masses or rolls unequal the flat, periodically indefinite, bases the stratus. Castle usually kind at the optimal of a layer blended by moderate surface ar winds. Sometimes, they form from the breaking up that stratus or the dispersing out of cumulus. Some turbulence, and feasible icing at subfreezing temperatures. Ceiling and also visibility usually far better than v low stratus.

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FIGURE 55. CUMULUS. Fair weather cumulus clouds type in convective currents and are identified by reasonably flat bases and also dome-shaped tops. Fair weather cumulus do not display extensive vertical advance and carry out not produce precipitation. More often, same weather cumulus suggests a shallow layer of instability. Some turbulence and also no far-reaching icing.

CLOUDS WITH extensive VERTICAL DEVELOPMENT

The vertically arisen family the clouds has towering cumulus and cumulonimbus. This clouds usually contain supercooled water above the freeze level. However when a cumulus grows to good heights, water in the upper component of the cloud freezes into ice crystals forming a cumulonimbus. The heights the cumuliform cloud bases range from 1,000 feet or less to above 10,000 feet. Numbers 56 and also 57 are photographs the clouds with considerable vertical development.

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FIGURE 56. TOWERING CUMULUS. Towering cumulus signifies a fairly deep great of unstable air. That shows considerable vertical development and has actually billowing cauliflower tops. Showers can an outcome from these clouds. Very strong turbulence; some clear icing over the freeze level.

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FIGURE 57. CUMULONIMBUS. Cumulonimbus are the ultimate manifestation the instability. They space vertically developed clouds of big dimensions with thick boiling tops often crowned v thick veils of dense cirrus (the anvil). Virtually the entire spectrum the flying hazards are had in these clouds consisting of violent turbulence. They must be avoided at all times! This cloud is the thunderstorm cloud and also is disputed in detail in chapter 11, “Thunderstorms.”

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